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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Tongwei Xie

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan from 2001 to 2008, and applies the method of “economic convergence”.

Findings

The results show that after the reform of rural compulsory education, inter‐provincial rural education disparities and educational equality have been significantly improved and trend to convergence; nevertheless the convergence rate on inter‐provincial disparities of education equality declines. The defects of the education input system – “county as principle” – has been a factor that restricts the coordinated development of rural education.

Practical limitations

This paper suggests that it is necessary for China's provincial and central government to afford the expense of compulsory education. China's present investment system would also worsen inter‐provincial inequities of education.

Social implications

Education equality is one of the basic social priorities. In China education equality has been improved; however it could be better if China's provincial and central government afforded the expenses of compulsory education.

Originality/value

This paper applies the method of “economic convergence” to analyze China's rural education disparities among its regions.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Nigel Poole, Fernando Álvarez, Nora Penagos and Roberto Vázquez

The purpose of this paper is to argue for appropriate formal education for rural young people in order to sustain and enhance viable rural communities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue for appropriate formal education for rural young people in order to sustain and enhance viable rural communities.

Design/methodology/approach

In reviewing the literature, it bridges the gap between thinking on education and development respectively, and links schooling with the concepts of livelihoods, human and social capital and life‐skills. By way of example, it summarises an empirical study of the content and delivery of tele‐education among indigenous communities in Chiapas, Mexico.

Findings

Developing and emerging economies and regions should prioritise effective and efficient rural education which incorporates practical and technical skills appropriate to the rural context in order to include young people in the agricultural development and agribusiness of rural areas. This means delivery of education that is rural, local and particular to the context, with appropriate technology, pedagogy and curriculum.

Research limitations/implications

The concepts and argument are of wide significance. The case study findings should not be readily generalised but the implications will relevant to many remote and marginalised communities where the rural economy is weak, opportunities are few and education resources are scarce.

Originality/value

The paper links different literatures and, by also drawing on empirical evidence consistent with the literature, makes a case for a significant reorientation of rural education towards appropriate life‐skills in order to create viable rural livelihoods.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Eric Moffa

Due to the complexities of place and the limited knowledge of citizenship education in rural contexts, the purpose of this paper is to examine civics teachers’ perceptions…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the complexities of place and the limited knowledge of citizenship education in rural contexts, the purpose of this paper is to examine civics teachers’ perceptions of place in rural schools and its influence on their decision making about the curriculum.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study design was utilized. Four 12th grade civics teachers were sampled across three rural schools in a southern state. Data came from interviews, classroom observations and teaching artifacts. A constant comparison method of data analysis led to the emergence of a major theme: the paradoxical treatment of place in civic education in rural schools.

Findings

Participants implemented place-based pedagogies while simultaneously promoting the narrative that students leave their home communities after graduation due to limited post-secondary opportunities (i.e. place-based learning for future (dis)placements). Participants reconciled leaving narratives and the displaced futures of students by emphasizing “the basics” devoid of place.

Originality/value

The paradoxical treatment of place, as influenced by teachers’ perceptions and civic sensibilities, contrasted with theoretical perspectives on place-based education that emphasize inhabiting and attending to place. Findings suggest the need to prepare rural civics teachers for place-conscious civic pedagogies to challenge paradoxical treatments of place and engender democratic investments in rural communities.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Gustavo Cunha de Araujo

This paper aims to provide an overview of an expanded, workable conception of rural youth and adult education that will move Brazil closer to a fair, egalitarian society…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of an expanded, workable conception of rural youth and adult education that will move Brazil closer to a fair, egalitarian society focused on human development.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a qualitative bibliographic perspective, analyzing historical data extracted from bibliographic and empirical research on rural education – assumptions for thinking about lifelong learning for young and adult peasants – and education and learning for all throughout life.

Findings

Education is critical in a democracy, forming the foundation of social, cultural and political citizenship, critical decision-making and an informed populace. Therefore, teacher education policies aimed at rural education in Brazil must be strengthened, funded and improved.

Research limitations/implications

This research does not present similarities and differences compared to European experiences; instead, it suggests expanding studies on this topic in other international contexts through developmental research to widen the discussion.

Practical implications

Providing high-quality, customized training for the teachers who teach the vastly diverse body of rural students is essential in terms of empowering and recognizing young and adult peasants’ right to learn.

Social implications

Education for all throughout life” has become a recognized right. Democracies must universalize this right by developing public policies, implementing them throughout the entire population and monitoring progress to verify that everyone – including the poorest peasant in the remotest countryside – has the tools to learn effectively.

Originality/value

By placing this study in the context of youth and adult learning, the study complements research that has addressed this topic in different international contexts, contributing broadly to knowledge regarding teacher education for rural areas and, more generally, to the implications of lifelong learning.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 45 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Xiaofei Li, Chengfang Liu, Renfu Luo, Linxiu Zhang and Scott Rozelle

The paper aims to discuss whether the younger generation of China's rural labor force is prepared, in terms of education level or labor quality, for the future labor…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to discuss whether the younger generation of China's rural labor force is prepared, in terms of education level or labor quality, for the future labor markets under China's industrial upgrading.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative survey data, the paper gives detailed discussions on the young rural laborers' education attainments, and their off‐farm employment status including job patterns, working hours, and hourly wage rates. The relationship between education and employment status is analyzed and tested. Through these discussions, an employment challenge is revealed, and some policy implications are made.

Findings

This paper finds that China's young rural laborers are generally poorly educated and mainly unskilled. They work long hours and are low paid. While they lack the labor quality that will be required to meet the industrial upgrading, an employment challenge may face them in the near future. This paper also finds a strong link between education levels and employment status for the young labor force, which implies the possible effect of policies such as improving rural education.

Originality/value

Based on a solid foundation of a national rural household survey, this paper updates the understanding of the education and employment situations of the young rural labor force in contemporary China. The concern about the employment challenges raised in the paper is related to the future of China's rural labor transition and the whole economy.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Wen Wang and Zhirong Jerry Zhao

In recent decades, the responsibility for the financing of compulsory education in rural China has rested with townships and villages which, with limited tax authority and…

Abstract

In recent decades, the responsibility for the financing of compulsory education in rural China has rested with townships and villages which, with limited tax authority and uneven revenue capacity, increasingly relied on a plethora of arbitrarily imposed fees for funding. To reduce farmers’ fiscal burdens, in 2000, the central government installed a series of rural taxation reforms. Correspondingly, the central government shifted the administrative responsibilities of rural compulsory education to the county level in 2001, and implemented a series of policies to make up for the loss of revenues to education. Using a provincial-level dataset from 1998 to 2006, we examined whether and how the rural taxation reforms affected the adequacy and equity of compulsory education finance in China, addressing related theoretical and policy implications from the perspective of intergovernmental fiscal relations.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2011

R. John Halsey

The purpose of this paper is to trace the establishment of area schools from two vantage points. The first vantage point is those who were legislatively responsible for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to trace the establishment of area schools from two vantage points. The first vantage point is those who were legislatively responsible for public education in South Australia from the mid 1930s through to the end of World War 2. The second is the local community, with references to Karoonda (and districts) in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper locates the evolution of area schools in the comprehensive public secondary schooling movement and the practice of borrowing policy initiatives from overseas and other education jurisdictions. Primary source documents have been used extensively throughout the article.

Findings

Initial resistance to the closure of small schools to form area schools was overcome by the provision of free bus transport, and the wider availability of secondary education, locally. Originally intended to provide instruction to students who would remain for most of their lives in rural communities, within ten years of opening, area schools became the means of mobility for many.

Social implications

The continuing exodus of youth from rural areas in search of “greener pastures” has become one of the main issues confronting rural communities as they search for ways to maintain viability in a competitive, market driven economy.

Originality/value

The paper is a rigorously documented historical contribution towards debate and discussion about how governments, and others, may ensure access to secondary education in rural areas in light of demographic and economic factors.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Weidong Wang, Yongqing Dong, Renfu Luo, Yunli Bai and Linxiu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of education in the labor market and to understand how returns to education change over time in rural China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of education in the labor market and to understand how returns to education change over time in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative survey data from 2004 to 2015, this study provides insights on wage determination in the labor market and examines how the returns to education in rural China differ with time and educational endowment. This study applies ordinary least squares estimation and the Heckman selection model to estimate the returns to education.

Findings

The returns to education decreased during the observed years from more than 6 percent in 2004 to only about 3 percent in 2011, rising to nearly 4 percent in 2015. The overall trend is robust and observed within groups defined by education. Additionally, the returns to education vary greatly with educational endowment. Tertiary education has always maintained a high rate of returns at nearly 10 percent, while returns to senior high school education and below have gradually diminished.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the results will not only enrich studies on the returns to education in rural China, but also provide a basis for diagnosing the changes of rural labor market in the early twenty-first century.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Jiang Luan, Jian-cheng Chen, Zhong-wei He, Qiang Li and Huanguang Qiu

Education plays an important role in improving Chinese rural laborers’ non-farm incomes. However, in Chinese western rural area, the level of return to education is very…

Abstract

Purpose

Education plays an important role in improving Chinese rural laborers’ non-farm incomes. However, in Chinese western rural area, the level of return to education is very low due to the underdeveloped economy and the condition of the education system. For improving the schooling returns level, Chinese central government is paying great attention to the condition of education in the rural western area. To date, no research has examined what educational style is more favorable for improving western rural laborers’ non-farm incomes. To answer this question, the purpose of this paper is to compare the treatment effect of high school education and secondary vocational education on their non-farm incomes. That will provide significant evidence for the government to carry out educational policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Base on the Mincer model, several methods is used to estimate the average return to a year education on western rural labors’ non-farm income, including OLS, IV and Heckman tow-steps method, to accounting for the ability endogenous and self-selection bias. And the propensity score matching method is used in estimate the treatment effects of high school education and secondary vocational education.

Findings

The results from Mincer model showed that the schooling returns in Chinese western rural area were estimated to range from 2.7 to 3.9 percent, that were lower than the average levels in Chinese whole rural area that are estimated in the other recent studies. By using propensity score matching to roll out the heterogeneous bias, show that the treatment effect from high school education was higher than that from secondary vocational education, indicating that the secondary vocational education is better.

Originality/value

Studies concerning the causal relationship between schooling (high school education and secondary vocational education) and non-farm earnings in the western region of China remain very limited, even empty. This paper will make an update contribution to the literature in the area of education earnings in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ai Yue, Bin Tang, Yaojiang Shi, Jingjing Tang, Guanminjia Shang, Alexis Medina and Scott Rozelle

The purpose of this paper is to describe the policy and trends in rural education in China over the past 40 years; and also discuss a number of challenges that are faced…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the policy and trends in rural education in China over the past 40 years; and also discuss a number of challenges that are faced by China’s rural school system.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use secondary data on policies and trends over the past 40 years for preschool, primary/junior high school, and high school.

Findings

The trends over the past 40 years in all areas of rural schooling have been continually upward and strong. While only a low share of rural children attended preschool in the 1980s, by 2014 more than 90 percent of rural children were attending. The biggest achievement in compulsory education is that the rise in the number of primary students that finish grade 6 and matriculate to junior high school. There also was a steep rise of those going to and completing high school. While the successes in upscaling rural education are absolutely unprecedented, there are still challenges.

Research limitations/implications

This is descriptive analysis and there is not causal link established between policies and rural schooling outcomes.

Practical implications

The authors illustrate one of the most rapid rises of rural education in history and match the achievements up with the policy efforts of the government. The authors also explore policy priorities that will be needed in the coming years to raise the quality of schooling.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that documents both the policies and the empirical trends of the success that China has created in building rural education from preschool to high school during the first 40 years of reform (1978-2018). The paper also documents – drawing on the literature and the own research – the achievements and challenges that China still face in the coming years, including issues of gender, urbanization, early childhood education and health and nutrition of students.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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