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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Fan Gao

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process…

Abstract

Purpose

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process presents three stylized facts: “Miraculous” achievements of poverty alleviation have been made on a global scale; the poverty alleviation achievements mainly occurred in the high growth stage after reform and opening up; the poverty alleviation process is accompanied by the structural transformation of the urban–rural dual economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, a logically consistent analytical framework should form among the structural transformation of the dual economy, economic growth and the achievements in poverty alleviation. In logical deduction, the structural transformation of the dual economy affects rural poverty alleviation through the effects of labor reallocation, agricultural productivity improvement, demographic change and fiscal resource allocation.

Findings

The first two refer to economic growth, and the latter two are alleviation policies. The combination of economic growth and poverty alleviation policies is the main cause for poverty alleviation performance. China's empirical evidence can support the four effects by which the structural transformation of the dual economy affects poverty alleviation.

Originality/value

China's socialist system and its economic system transformation after reform and opening up provide an institutional basis for the effects to come into play. After 2020, China's poverty alleviation strategies will enter the “second-half” phase, namely, the phase of solving the problems of relative poverty in urban and rural areas by adopting conventional methods and establishing long-term mechanisms. This requires the facilitation of the reconnection between poverty alleviation strategies and the structural transformation of the dual economy in terms of development ideas and policy directions.

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

John Sanders and Laura Galloway

The purpose of this paper is to investigate website quality in rural firms in four countries, by using Gonzalez and Palacios's Web Assessment Index (WAI). There is an…

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1635

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate website quality in rural firms in four countries, by using Gonzalez and Palacios's Web Assessment Index (WAI). There is an assertion in the literature that quality is lower amongst rural firms than urban firms, and lower amongst small firms than large firms. The disadvantages of lack of access to skills and economic peripherality in rural areas are attributed to this. Concurrently, there is reason to surmise that the websites of firms in transition economies may be higher quality than those in market economies. The paper aims to explore websites in distinct rural regions to investigate if variation occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate website quality the WAI was applied to a sample of 60 rural firms representing 15 each in Scotland, New Zealand, Southern Russia and Hunan Province in China. Analysis of the categorical data was performed using a variety of established methods.

Findings

The WAI is of use in terms of website quality management. Additionally, comparisons between the quality of websites in the sample of small rural firms with those of large firms in previous studies support the contention that large firms generally have better quality websites. Results also illustrate that there are some differences in website quality between rural small businesses in the different locations. In particular, small rural firms in Hunan Province in China had websites of observable better quality than those elsewhere. The authors conclude that skills, knowledge and infrastructure have a bearing on the sophistication of small firms' websites.

Research limitations/implications

Implications include that variation in the rural economy by region prevails as the rural economy is not, as often implied, a homogeneous concept.

Practical implications

There are implications in terms of exploring the effects of regulation, culture and infrastructure on rural small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The internet may indeed contribute to rural economies, but only insofar as it is facilitated by infrastructure and access to skills, and by culture and perceived usefulness by business owners.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a heterogeneous concept by comparing practice in four distinct rural regions. It also adds weight to the emerging identification of exogenous factors as being at least as much a factor in determining the use of ICT in rural SMEs as endogenous motivations, skills and resources.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Xiahui Liu

During the process of reform and opening-up, the structural transformations of the Chinese economy have two significant leaps forward and demonstrate a process of “rural

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2611

Abstract

Purpose

During the process of reform and opening-up, the structural transformations of the Chinese economy have two significant leaps forward and demonstrate a process of “rural area–industrialization (urban industry and rural industry)–urbanization” development powered by the main engine of economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

These two leaps forward resulted in transitions of economic structure in China. In the author’s view, structural transformations are closely related to China's economic reforms and can be divided into clear phases.

Findings

The structural transformations have two significant leaps forward and demonstrate a process of “rural area–industry (urban industry and rural industry)–urban area development” powered by the main engine of economic growth.

Originality/value

This paper reviews and summarizes the development and structural transformations in China’s economy over the last 40 years. The author believes that China’s economic miracle is accompanied by dramatic changes in its economic structure, which is particularly characterized by the ongoing process of transition from a traditional agricultural economy into a country with high industrial output, from industrialization into urbanization and from a planned economy into a market economy.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Wei Jia and Xiaoyun Liu

– What this paper aims to tackle is how much did the return of rural migrant labor during the financial crisis affect China's GDP and the growth rate of the national economy.

Abstract

Purpose

What this paper aims to tackle is how much did the return of rural migrant labor during the financial crisis affect China's GDP and the growth rate of the national economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and uses data of China's 2007 Input-Output Table to analyze the impact of the return of rural migrant labor on China's economy during the financial crisis.

Findings

The results show that the return of rural migrant labor during the financial crisis had substantial impacts on China's economy. The national GDP decreased by about 0.499-1.463 percent, mainly due to the number of rural labor who migrated from the non-agricultural sector to agriculture. Of the major sectors of economy, the manufacturing, construction and other services sectors were the most affected.

Originality/value

This paper assesses the impacts of return of rural migrant labor during the financial crisis on China's GDP and the growth rate of the national economy.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Minggao Shen, Jikun Huang, Linxiu Zhang and Scott Rozelle

This paper seeks to understand the evolution of financial intermediation in the course of China's economic transition.

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2573

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to understand the evolution of financial intermediation in the course of China's economic transition.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a unique data set collected by the authors and other collaborators from a 1998 survey of financial institutions, enterprises, and government officials in southern China.

Findings

Based on an empirical investigation of rural financial reforms, it is argued that China's two‐decade long financial reform was a gradual process that accommodates reforms in other sectors and responds to changing policy goals and the economic and institutional environment in which financial institutions operate. Although using standard measures of financial system performance may cast doubt on the effectiveness of China's rural banking system, when one understands the different roles that it has been asked to play, it can be argued that it has not operated so poorly.

Research limitations/implications

In conclusion, it is found that China's rural economic environment is still changing. If the system continues to change in the future, responding to pressures in the economy, further financial reforms will almost certainly emerge in the coming years.

Practical implications

These findings, although primarily from the 1980s and 1990s, are still helpful in understanding the reform process that is currently ongoing.

Social implications

This paper will help readers make sense of agricultural financial reforms and will allow for more discourse over what has been accomplished and what still is needed.

Originality/value

This is the first manuscript to comprehensively put China's rural financial reforms into the context of modern economic analysis, explaining why China's government proceeded as they did and why the reforms have unfolded in such a stop and start manner.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Patrick S. Poon, Lianxi Zhou and Tsang‐Sing Chan

This paper aims to examine the institutional and social determinants, and consequences of social entrepreneurship with respect to China's rural enterprises. It also…

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2405

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the institutional and social determinants, and consequences of social entrepreneurship with respect to China's rural enterprises. It also attempts to provide a conceptual framework concerning how rural Chinese enterprises act as social entrepreneurial institutions and contribute to both business development and social welfare of local communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework is developed through a critical review of literature and an integration of multiple disciplinary studies, with a focus on the perspectives of institutional governance, managerial networks, and market orientation.

Findings

The study identifies three framework layers for the development of China's rural enterprises, which are fundamentally driven by market preserving authoritarianism, local state corporatism, community culture, social entrepreneurship and market orientation.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can help contribute to the theoretical development of strategic issues of social entrepreneurship in transitional economies. It may also provide insights about local state governance, ownership structures and market competition in China.

Originality/value

As China's rural enterprises are widely regarded as a phenomenon related to the core nature of a “socialist market economy”, an ideology embraced since the beginning of Chinese social‐economic reforms, a study of institutional and entrepreneurial nature of this kind serves as a stepping stone for understanding the emerging phenomenon of the country's social entrepreneurship, which is characterized by open market mechanisms and socialist legacies.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Gary Bosworth

In a period of rural economic change, knowledge and skills transfers and the generation of new economic opportunities are seen as essential for promoting rural

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1615

Abstract

Purpose

In a period of rural economic change, knowledge and skills transfers and the generation of new economic opportunities are seen as essential for promoting rural development. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence of the impact of educated in‐migrants establishing new business activity in rural areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employs qualitative interviews with rural business owners informed by an earlier postal survey of rural microbusinesses in the North East of England. The interview data are used to explore the implications of owners' past education and work experience for the development of their businesses. The attitudes and networking behaviour of business owners are also explored in order to assess the extent to which social capital facilitates the exchange of valuable knowledge and opportunities between rural businesses.

Findings

Data indicate that rural in‐migrants, defined as having moved at least 30 miles as adults, arrive with significantly higher education qualifications than their local business‐owning counterparts. It also indicates that those with higher levels of education are most likely to engage with networking groups and business advice providers. This leads to the conclusion that as well as bringing higher levels of human capital, the integration of in‐migrants into local economies is indirectly increasing the potential levels of human and social capital across the rural economy.

Originality/value

The research highlights important data concerning the levels of education among in‐migrants and local business owners. It continues by developing theoretical explanations about the way that a business owner's background can influence their business activity. This raises awareness of the diversity of skills and networks among rural business owners that are enhancing the stocks of human and social capital in the rural economy.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Weiqi Pei

With the development of the new rural construction action of beautiful industries, the problem of uncoordinated development of the rural economy and ecological protection…

Abstract

With the development of the new rural construction action of beautiful industries, the problem of uncoordinated development of the rural economy and ecological protection has become increasingly prominent. Based on this, in the process of planning, design, construction and management, ecological construction technology was introduced. The planning and design of ecological recycling economy and rural greenway were studied, and the planning types of greenway in industrial villages were deeply explored. Taking the planning and construction of industrial rural greenway in Anji county as an example, the research and analysis were carried out. From the rural road, landscape space, ecology, service facilities, logo and so on, the planning was carried ou, and the greenway network of industrial villages in Anji county was constructed. Combined with practical engineering research, the scientific and rational development of rural greenway in the urban and rural construction throughout the countryn was promoted, the contradiction between urban and rural construction and ecological protection was effectively solved, and the construction of beautiful countryside was promoted.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Dev Narayan Sarkar, Kaushik Kundu and Himadri Roy Chaudhuri

The present study is aimed at understanding the survival strategies of Subsistence-type Rural Independent retailers, henceforth called SRIs, in the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid…

Abstract

The present study is aimed at understanding the survival strategies of Subsistence-type Rural Independent retailers, henceforth called SRIs, in the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid (BoP) markets of developing economies through a qualitative study. SRIs constitute a pivotal channel of distribution of goods to BoP consumers living in the rural areas of developing economies. A process of long interviews was chosen for data gathering to allow SRIs to go into details to allow them to expound upon their beliefs, life-situations, and societal norms. Narratives were collected verbatim from SRIs. The concept of socio-economic embeddedness is used as the central concept to interpret and connect the elements, discerned from the narratives, into a conceptual framework. The aforesaid theory combines the neo-classical economic concept of utility maximization with behavioral economics and economic sociology. The analysis of the narratives is interpretive against the identified elements of the concept of economic embeddedness. The survival strategies of SRIs seem to stem from sociological, psychological, and utility-maximizing behaviors. The elements of SRIs’ responses to its environment provide valuable insights into their purchase motivations.

Details

Bottom of the Pyramid Marketing: Making, Shaping and Developing BoP Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-556-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Robert Newbery and Gary Bosworth

The purpose of this paper is to challenge calls for a monolithic rural home‐based business (HBB) sector and instead propose meaningful sub‐sectors of HBB that fit within…

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1685

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge calls for a monolithic rural home‐based business (HBB) sector and instead propose meaningful sub‐sectors of HBB that fit within contemporary rural economic development theory. This informs business support and policy objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey analysis of rural microbusinesses in the North East of England compares home‐based and other rural microbusinesses to illustrate their defining characteristics. Case study interviews are then used to test theory development and provide greater understanding about the motivations and aspirations of HBB owners.

Findings

The research demonstrates that the rural HBB sector is not homogenous. For some, the home is the business, for others it is a convenient location and for others it is not the place of work, simply the registered business address. This has significant implications for the needs of each type of business and their prospects for growth.

Research limitations/implications

This paper introduces the concept of sub‐sectors of HBBs but more detailed survey work can establish whether these are fully inclusive. With a changing economic climate, further research might also examine the resilience of these businesses in recession and their ability to react to growth opportunities in a period of upturn.

Originality/value

As an emergent area of study in the fields of small business and rural economy, HBBs are potential vehicles for both social and economic development. With large numbers of HBBs in rural areas, this paper illustrates the need to understand both their potential and their limitations in order to maximise their contribution to vibrant and sustainable rural economy.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

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