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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Saadia Tayyaba

Recent educational research has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent educational research has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report ruralurban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from four provinces of Pakistan. The study aims to take into account the limitations of previous research, mainly the issues of non‐representative samples and inadequate sampling techniques, by using proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students and how schooling, students and teacher‐related factors account for gap in achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data source for the study was the 2006 national assessment survey of year four students in government school across four provinces in four core subjects. The sample design included a two‐stage stratified random sample, where the major strata of national interest were student and school gender, geographical location and region. First stage involved selecting schools and in the second stage students were selected from schools. The procedure of estimation involved computing the average of each group's achievement scores and attached standard errors, the gap of standard errors and statistical significance of standard errors at 0.05 level.

Findings

The results show that rural and urban students had comparable levels of achievement in some of the tested learning areas. In Balochistan province, rural students outperformed their urban counterparts in three out of the four tested subjects. In Punjab and Sindh, urban students performed significantly better in social studies and language tests; scores on social studies and language did not differ significantly across location in the North West. The differences appeared to be partly explained by variation in schooling conditions, students' home background, and teachers' characteristics. Teachers' training turned out to be decisive in determining students' achievement, whereas availability of resources and multi‐grade teaching was less important.

Originality/value

Recent educational research from around the world has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study is the first attempt to report ruralurban disparities in academic achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample. The study has employed an appropriate sampling strategy and proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students in four provinces. The findings could therefore be used to guide policy interventions in areas of curriculum differences, schooling conditions, teachers' training and multi‐grade teaching across provinces.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

B.T. Sampath Kumar, M.T. Basavaraja and R. Gagendra

The purpose of this paper is to investigate computer literacy competencies among rural and urban students in India and its prime objectives are to find out: how rural and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate computer literacy competencies among rural and urban students in India and its prime objectives are to find out: how rural and urban students use computers, what is the purpose of computers for these students and what problems have the students encountered while using computers.

Design/methodology/approach

Scheduled interviews were conducted to collect necessary data from rural and urban students. The interview schedules consisted of various questions designed to elicit details about the students’ use of computers. A total of 600 interview schedules were collected and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for windows to test the formulated hypothesis.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that the infrastructural facilities varied among rural and urban schools. Another notable finding of the study was that majority (91.33 percent) of urban students used computers compared to a significantly less percentage of rural students (32.33 percent). Most rural students have not used computers mainly because they do not know how to (49.75 percent) followed by lack of support from teachers (48.76 percent) and non-availability of computers in their schools (48.27 percent). Electrical power failure was another major problem faced by both urban students (31.75 percent) and rural students (40.20 percent).

Originality/value

This study attempted to learn about the computer literacy competencies among the students and the digital divide in Indian schools. On the basis of the findings, the study has recommended guidelines to bridge the digital gap. These findings and recommendations will potentially be helpful to school authorities and the government in order to take the necessary measurements to bridge the digital gap between the rural and urban students.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

B.T. Sampath Kumar and S.U. Shiva Kumara

The purpose of this paper is to know the frequency, place, and purpose of use of computer. It also aimed to know the various problems faced by the students in using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to know the frequency, place, and purpose of use of computer. It also aimed to know the various problems faced by the students in using the computer and to know the reasons for not using computer by rural and urban students.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of the 2,592 sample population were selected from 64 rural and urban high schools of two districts of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection and data have been analyzed using Software Package for Social Science. Statistical tests, namely, χ2 and one-way ANOVA were applied to test the formulated hypotheses.

Findings

The results of the study showed that only 20.66 percent rural students and 69.70 percent of urban students used computer for various academic purposes. Further, most of the rural and urban students opined that “electric power failure” and “lack of computer” skills were major problem in using computer.

Originality/value

Today, the computer education in schools plays an important role in student’s career development and enhances the quality of learning among students. Thus, the local government/school authorities may provide the minimum ICT infrastructure in both schools and more particularly in rural schools.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Rafsan Mahmud

Private supplementary tutoring, common in many countries, has mixed (both positive and negative) dimensions that impact student learning. Private supplementary tutoring…

Abstract

Purpose

Private supplementary tutoring, common in many countries, has mixed (both positive and negative) dimensions that impact student learning. Private supplementary tutoring runs parallel to mainstream schooling and provides lessons before or after school hours in exchange for additional fees. The purpose of this paper is to focus on how private supplementary tutoring benefits students’ learning in secondary education. It also identifies the drawbacks of tutoring, and shows variations in and between urban and rural locations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employed a mixed methods approach using a survey and individual interview collected from two different research settings: urban and rural. Grades 8 and 10 were purposefully chosen for data collection. A sample of 802 participants, including 401 students and their 401 parents (either mothers or fathers), participated in the survey, in addition to 48 interviewees comprising students, parents and teachers.

Findings

At times, pupils’ educational perspectives are influenced by the conflicting (positive/negative) standpoints of tutoring issues. The paper finds mixed impacts of private tutoring with a focus on disparities of implications between urban and rural locations. It identifies positive aspects such as learning attainment, exam preparation, relationship growth and lesson practice, as well as negative perspectives, such as an examination-centered aim and hamper of mainstream school learning.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the awareness of private supplementary tutoring that benefits students’ learning while also bringing disadvantages. It shows implications of fee-charging tutoring which may relate to students’ family socio-economic situations. The paper addresses private tutoring in general (including English and all other subjects) in most cases, and, more specifically, private tutoring in English as a subject in some cases.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Shiv Kumar

The purpose of the present study is to take an overview of the use of computers, internet, computer skills and information searching behaviour on the web as well as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to take an overview of the use of computers, internet, computer skills and information searching behaviour on the web as well as the OPAC in a university setting among students at the postgraduate level from rural and urban backgrounds in a comparative analogue.

Design/methodology/approach

This survey‐based study utilized the questionnaire as its major data collection instrument. However, the interview method and general observations were also used, whenever required, to supplement the data and make the information more explicit. The data, thus collected, were analysed with the aid of SPSS statistical software. The Chi‐square test was also performed to identify significant comparability among urban and rural background students.

Findings

The study revealed that most postgraduates (95.5 per cent) belonging to rural areas were computer literate. Further, most of them had accessed the web for communication purposes and for locating general and academic information. The results showed no significant differences between rural and urban students for the use of computer and internet, usage patterns of OPAC like search engines and the ease of OPAC use and their expectations from OPAC. The only significant differences found among both groups were for their reactions during unsuccessful searches. Thus, the background of users at the postgraduate level does not significantly affect the use of computer and internet, information searching behaviour patterns on the web and library systems, especially OPAC.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering work to examine whether postgraduates from differing backgrounds searched for information required by them differently through varying information channels for academic purposes in a university library system in India.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Patnaree Piyaman, Philip Hallinger and Pongsin Viseshsiri

Developing countries in many parts of the world have experienced a disturbing trend in the differential pace of economic development among urban and rural communities…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing countries in many parts of the world have experienced a disturbing trend in the differential pace of economic development among urban and rural communities. These inequities have been observed in education systems in Asia, Africa, and Latin America where researchers have documented differences not only in resource allocation but also in the academic performance among students in urban and rural schools. Recently researchers have shifted their focus from examining financial and physical resources to investigating the nature and impact of differences in human resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in school organization processes associated with learning-centered leadership and teacher learning among urban and rural primary schools in Thailand. Teacher trust and teacher agency were proposed as possible mediators of leadership effects on teacher learning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. The authors collected survey data from 1,011 teachers and 60 principals in 30 urban and 30 rural primary schools in Thailand. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping were used to analyze the proposed model of leadership and teacher professional learning. More specifically, data analysis was aimed at determining the nature of relationships among the constructs in the conceptual model and whether patterns of leadership and teacher learning differed in urban and rural primary schools.

Findings

The results affirmed a model whereby school leadership exerted significant indirect effects on teacher learning in both urban and rural primary schools. Data analyses determined that the path of leadership effects moved through trust to agency and then to teacher professional learning. Thus, while the authors found a strong direct effect of leadership on teacher trust, there were only small direct effects of leadership on teacher agency and no meaningful direct effects of leadership on teacher professional learning. Thus, the research affirmed a full mediation model of leadership effects on teacher learning. Finally, the study also affirmed that the measured variables were perceived as significantly stronger in the urban schools than in the rural schools.

Social implications

The research expands on prior research on the “achievement gap” in Thailand by demonstrating the existence of a similar “human resource gap” when comparing urban and rural school leaders and teachers. This study implies that addressing the gap in student achievement will require action aimed at building the capacity of the principals and teachers who work with the rural pupils.

Originality/value

These results suggest differences in the quality of human resources between urban and rural primary schools in Thailand. There may be potential benefit to be gained from providing training focused on “learning-centered leadership” for principals and middle level leaders, as well as expanding access to quality professional development opportunities for rural teachers.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Yitao Jiang, Xiaojun Shi, Shunming Zhang and Jingjing Ji

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the effect of high‐level human capital investment, using tertiary education as the proxy, on the urbanrural income gap in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the effect of high‐level human capital investment, using tertiary education as the proxy, on the urbanrural income gap in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a panel dataset covering 28 provinces of China over the period from 1988 to 2007, this paper employs Hansen's method and two‐step GMM‐SYS estimator to estimate the threshold regression model and the dynamic fixed‐effect panel model, respectively.

Findings

The urbanrural income gap is found to be related to high‐level human capital investment in an inverted U‐shaped pattern with respect to economic development level. The estimated threshold turning point is around 20,000 RMB GDP per capita. This estimate is sufficiently robust to model specifications and variants of the dependent variable.

Social implications

The authors forecast that high‐level human capital investment could play a role in bridging the urbanrural income gap at the national level by 2014, when China's GDP per capita assumes an annual growth rate of 7.5 percent.

Originality/value

This, it is believed, is the first research to find an inverted U‐shaped pattern for high‐level human capital investment and urbanrural income gap nexus in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Charles Buabeng-Andoh and Issifu Yidana

The purpose of this study is to investigate secondary school students’ pedagogical use of information communication and technologies (ICT), their attitudes toward…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate secondary school students’ pedagogical use of information communication and technologies (ICT), their attitudes toward integration of ICT and the differences in their attitudes based on gender, school type and location.

Design/methodology/approach

The data was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The study revealed that students’ use of ICT to support their learning was low. Students mostly used ICT to communicate with peers. Students’ methods of assimilating knowledge were through teacher-centred teaching, even though they somewhat used ICT for collaborative and inquiry learning. Students in public schools perceived the use of ICT more valuable than students in private schools. Also, the study provided evidence that students in urban and rural schools differed in their attitudes in terms of perceived value and cost of ICT use, but no differences in attitude in terms of expectancy of success were found to exist among students in all locations.

Originality/value

The study provided further evidence that the value of ICT positively related to students’ pedagogical use of ICT, but the effect was very limited. This implies that although students have positive attitudes toward the benefits of ICT in learning; many do not integrate the technology into their learning. Lastly, the study was able to provide additional evidence that perceived cost negatively related to students’ pedagogical use of technology, but the result was very small. This indicates that since many students do not utilize ICT in their learning they rarely encounter barriers or challenges when it comes to the integration of the technology into their studies.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2012

Patricia Anderson and Julian Devonish

This study examines the changes which were observed in the composition of student enrolment at the University of the West Indies over two decades, and highlights the…

Abstract

This study examines the changes which were observed in the composition of student enrolment at the University of the West Indies over two decades, and highlights the movement towards greater inclusiveness, as the University campus in Jamaica enrolled greater proportions of students from rural backgrounds, and from lower income levels. The analysis shows that over this period (1983–2003), the University was itself seeking to become more responsive to regional needs and developmental priorities, while nonetheless being hampered by the limitations of the secondary school system, which still bore the colonial imprint of dual and unequal tracks. The chapter concludes with an assessment of the institutional demands that are generated by increasing diversity, and assesses the extent to which the UWI and the country have been able to respond effectively to these student needs.

Details

As the World Turns: Implications of Global Shifts in Higher Education for Theory, Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-641-6

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2011

Heidi Ross and Yimin Wang

This chapter begins with an examination of the complexities, challenges, and contradictions that are presented by policies and practices associated with the College…

Abstract

This chapter begins with an examination of the complexities, challenges, and contradictions that are presented by policies and practices associated with the College Entrance Examination (CEE) and higher education admissions during the three decades of China's reform era. It then focuses on recent reform polices as outlined in the national education 2020 Blueprint (National Educational Reform and Development Plan, 2010–2020), which deepens the debate about the role of the CEE in shaping the mission of education and distributing opportunities and “talents” affecting social mobility, university autonomy, and national development. The CEE stands at the epicenter of educational reform, criticized for hamstringing institutional autonomy and innovation; reducing schooling to a soulless competition; and unfairly advantaging urban children with greater educational opportunities. This chapter explains the staying power of the CEE and concludes that China's examination culture will intensify in the short term, as the CEE is clung to as a last bastion of meritocracy and is reinforced by the state's desire to cultivate what the 2020 Blueprint labels elite “selected innovative” and “pragmatic” talents. Content and policy analysis is used to explain CEE reform since 1978 and provide a backdrop for discussion of pedagogical, market, and compensatory reform strategies that tinker at the CEE's margins. To take into account micro-institutional processes involved in the CEE's creation, maintenance, and resistance to change, we examine stakeholders' frames of common perception through 2010 interviews with exam candidates and their parents, and faculty and administrators from four Gansu Province universities. These interviews illustrate what the CEE means to diverse families and reveal how admission policies impact students, teachers, and university faculty and administrators at both elite and non-elite higher education institutions. The slow change of CEE reform discourse and practice as China inches from examination-based selection criteria to ability-based selection criteria has begun to redefine the trajectories of recognized “elites,” whose actions are motivated by and reflect the changing needs of society and economic development. Friction and resistance on the ground, therefore, point to the ways in which the changing needs of the labor market, the policy mandates of the national agenda, the meritocratic ideal and the educational desires of China's citizenry intertwine to shape, and be shaped by, CEE policies.

Details

The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-186-2

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