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Analyses the likely impact of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis on the organization of the UK beef supply chain. Using concepts from New Institutional Economics, argues that, in addition to the direct financial costs of the crisis, additional hidden transaction costs and long‐term “transaction benefits” should be considered. Hidden costs include the increased need for monitoring and traceability in the supply chain, while hidden benefits may result from a reorientation of the industry towards a more consumer‐driven focus, a greater attention to food safety issues and opportunities for branding and market segmentation. It is suggested that the hidden transaction costs and benefits are likely to lead to closer vertical co‐ordination throughout the beef supply chain.
Marketing systems for fresh food products are frequently analysed in the economics and marketing literature, most often either in terms of a quantitative model reflecting…
Marketing systems for fresh food products are frequently analysed in the economics and marketing literature, most often either in terms of a quantitative model reflecting some policy or environmental concern, or in terms of a simple description of the shape and size of the system. Considers explicitly the nature of the relationships at each level of a marketing system, using methods derived from the transaction cost and marketing literatures. The methods focus on simple evaluations of transactions at each level of a system, and are applied to the marketing system for a fresh product from Egypt to the UK.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the formation of the European Union, and current economic crises and cost considerations in various countries around the world…
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the formation of the European Union, and current economic crises and cost considerations in various countries around the world, interest has been developing in cross‐national and cross‐cultural marketing opportunities in the sector of food. Today in the United States the food industry is of paramount importance, a trend that is evident in other nations. Opportunity exists for commercial growth on an international level by companies large and small. An understanding of the food marketing systems of different nations and cultures is necessary for growth and development by these companies. Different organizations and scholars have been studying various aspects of the field of cross‐national and cross‐cultural food marketing on a micro level. Analyzing these different studies evidences a need to conduct further study and to develop more theory—specifically on cross‐national and cross‐cultural food marketing at a macro level.
Looks at the way in which public transport is used for evacuation of personnel in the event of emergencies or disasters. Although the work of the emergency services is…
Looks at the way in which public transport is used for evacuation of personnel in the event of emergencies or disasters. Although the work of the emergency services is well documented, it seems that the important task of evacuation, and particularly the planning, operation and documentation is often overlooked. This article looks at how public transport copes with this task, and suggests that this is due to the sometimes unpredictable nature of the transport system due to roadworks, road closures, accidents, etc. Special events, such as football matches, are a regular occurrence, which include the need to move large crowds to and from the venue. This strategy and planning can be used in the evacuation of people in the event of a disaster.
The purpose of this paper is to show, with concrete cases, how to forgo or substantially moderate strategy that is structured within action plans: moves to alleviate…
The purpose of this paper is to show, with concrete cases, how to forgo or substantially moderate strategy that is structured within action plans: moves to alleviate coping with obstacles encountered in programme execution.
The paper presents a series of real‐life examples of planned withdrawal – or not – from situations clearly uneconomic, unable to meet their original purposes, counterproductive, or otherwise a futile allocation of resources and effort.
The paper finds that studied protection can spell out beforehand, with foresight and determination (and often, due expression of trust), the success of an undertaking.
Getting the future right often seems more difficult than getting it wrong.
Planners, strategists and designers should profit from the types of examples reviewed to confirm the solidity of their own procedural foresight.
SEPTEMBER finds the summer irrevocably over, although there will still be one or two very beautiful months in the English autumn remaining. It is usually the time when the older librarian thinks of conferences, and today he realizes regretfully that these have receded into what already seems a remote past. This month as we write we have to repeat the expectation we have expressed every month since May that before these words appear in print the threatened lightning attack on the life of England will have been made by the Nazis. It is becoming so customary, however, that one can only suggest that so far as circumstances allow we proceed with our normal work. The circumstances may make this difficult but they should be faced. One thing stands out: that in public libraries, at anyrate, the demands made by readers have gradually returned to their usual level and in some places have risen above it. This does not always mean that the figures are as high as they were, because in many of the great cities and towns a part of the population, including a very large number of the children, have been evacuated. In spite of the pressure on the population as a whole, it would seem that head for head more books are being read now than at any previous time.
LIGHT rarely comes to people as swiftly as it did to Paul on the Damascus road. More often it is the slow accretion of knowledge through education and persuasion, the steady pressure of convinced advocates and the relentless force of events that opens their minds to new ideas.