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There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper…
There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss several centrally important questions and assumptions in the nature of this research which, in our view, require more careful consideration in future work.
In Part I of this paper we reported the main findings of a survey of the literature on occupational stress. We were particularly concerned to try to estimate the size of…
In Part I of this paper we reported the main findings of a survey of the literature on occupational stress. We were particularly concerned to try to estimate the size of the problem of stress at work and, further, to see if different occupational groups experienced different degrees of stress. The oversimplified answers to these questions are that at any one time about eight per cent of the workforce are experiencing some distress and that greater proportions of the lower social classes experience more of it. Repetitive, machine‐minding type tasks appear to be particularly unpleasant and potentially harmful to health and well‐being. These findings were hedged about with reservations on the validity of the measures used and other doubts, and we concluded the paper with the comment that it was difficult to integrate and make sense of all these data without some better definitions of the concepts and a model for delineating the relationships of the concepts. This second part at‐tempts to deal with these two difficulties.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
Anyone who has been in regular contact with the media during the last 10 years must have been impressed by the amount of information and interest in health and the stresses of modern life. Much of the attention has been centred on the role of work in creating stress and its possible contribution to major illnesses such as heart disease, stomach ulcers and hypertension. This interest has been stimulated by an ever growing amount of research into stress at work. Friedman and Rosenman in California have carried out many large scale studies of the role of behaviour/personality in causing heart disease. This lead to a semi‐popular book called A‐Type Behavior and your Heart. Three large surveys have been reported in the last few years: Caplan et al. carried out a survey of 2,300 persons from 23 different occupations for the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. They collected data on perceived stressors at work, perceived strain and perceived supports from inside and outside the organisation. Physiological measures were taken from a sub‐sample of 390 The results are very complex but the most stressed persons were in occupations which involve tasks that are simple but inescapable such as in machine‐minding. Such jobs are low in status and the strain is possibly exacerbated by lack of support from both inside and outside the organisation. Zaleznik et al. studied over 2,000 managers and supervisors from a large Canadian Corporation. Pearlin and Schooler conducted a survey of 2,600 persons for the National Institute of Mental Health. As well as exploring the nature of the stresses and strains experienced by these people the authors asked about the different kinds of strategies they used to cope with their problems. Four different problem areas were explored: marital, child‐rearing, economic and work. It was found that the people with a greater range of coping strategies felt less strained except in the area of work. The authors suggested that this was because the in dividual person can do little to remove the stresses at work since they are inherent in the system. Coping with work problems, they argue, needs to be done more at the level of the system.
The article introduces the Utopian vision of managing people at work described in Abraham Maslow’s book Eupsychian Management. This essentially foresees a time when organizations are managed by self‐actualising people along lines which would encourage the self‐actualisation of people from all levels of the organization. Maslow’s vision was that this would lead to really effective organizations and a much improved society. The article considers how far such movements as quality of working life, TQM, empowerment and autonomous working groups have moved us towards this sort of management practice. There are definite moves in this direction but considerable constraints on making the practice universal, even though there is growing empirical evidence that positive human resource practices lead to improved efficiency and effectiveness.
Reviews the data on changing demographic trends and predictionsabout their implications for human resource management (HRM) practicesin the 1990s. Reports the results of a…
Reviews the data on changing demographic trends and predictions about their implications for human resource management (HRM) practices in the 1990s. Reports the results of a survey of 176 senior managers/personnel specialists, which assessed their knowledge of the demographic trends, and their attitudes to HRM practices which are claimed to alleviate the effects of these trends. The results reveal a considerable degree of ignorance about the nature of the demographic trends, and varying attitudes towards the importance of the practices associated with their alleviation.
A FIRST attempt to give the dates of the introduction of printing into the various places in a county, generally results in an exhibition of the ignorance of the compiler. Further, when the information has not been systematically collected but simply forms part of a general collection of titles, relating not only to that county but to the country at large, the local specialist will probably quote vaguely of “rushing in where” he “fears to tread.” My only apology, and I consider it a perfectly valid one, for publishing the following notes on Essex printers and booksellers, is that no one else has done it.
This study looks at the visibility of logos during the televised broadcast of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, and television viewers' perceptions, recall and…
This study looks at the visibility of logos during the televised broadcast of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, and television viewers' perceptions, recall and recognition of those logos. The results indicate that the number of brands and logos perceived was far greater than actually existed, bringing into question the effectiveness of the Olympics' 'clean venue' policy.