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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Glyn Davies and Roy Davies

This is the second part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological…

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1592

Abstract

This is the second part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological developments from the dawn of civilization until the closing years of the twentieth century. Part 2 covers events from the start of the industrial revolution onwards. This period saw major changes in the relative importance of coinage, paper money and bank money, as well as the beginnings of electronic money. These changes, and the financial effects of the Napoleonic and World Wars, the rise and decline of the British Empire, the emergence of the United States and Japan, decolonisation and Third World debt, and moves towards a single currency in Europe, are all covered.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Glyn Davies and Roy Davies

This is the first part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological…

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1251

Abstract

This is the first part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological developments from the dawn of civilization until the closing years of the twentieth century. Starting with the origins of money and of banking the chronology moves on to the development of coinage in Asia Minor and its extension by the conquests of Alexander and later Rome before proceeding to the start of the long history of the pound sterling. The origins of paper money in China, the re‐emergence of banking in Europe, the financial effects of various wars and conflicts and the age of exploration, and subsequent developments up to the threshold of the industrial revolution are all covered.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Roy Davies

The design of vision algorithms for industrial applications is often considered to be an artform. In this article Roy Davies demonstrates that it can be a science.

Abstract

The design of vision algorithms for industrial applications is often considered to be an artform. In this article Roy Davies demonstrates that it can be a science.

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Sensor Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Alastair Roy, Jane Fountain and Sundari Anitha

This paper examines the social and institutional context of barriers to drug service throughcare and aftercare for prisoners in England and Wales, including those that…

Abstract

This paper examines the social and institutional context of barriers to drug service throughcare and aftercare for prisoners in England and Wales, including those that specifically affect Black and minority ethnic prisoners. A research project in 2004 reviewed relevant literature and statistical data, mapped prison drug services, and sought the perspectives of relevant stakeholders: in total, 334 individuals were recruited to the study. The methodology facilitates analysis of the structure of services and the agency prisoner in accessing them. Recommendations are made for changes to the structure and delivery of prison drug services.

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Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Martin Myhill, Roy Davies, David Salter and Ian Tilsed

The principal organisational issues relating to the creation, validation and maintenance of the University of Exeter's Web site are discussed from the viewpoint of the…

Abstract

The principal organisational issues relating to the creation, validation and maintenance of the University of Exeter's Web site are discussed from the viewpoint of the University Library. Important issues include the effective allocation of responsibility, the timely formation of working groups, and the fostering of a spirit of cooperation amongst all departments and services responsible for providing or authorising information. Given the Web's popularity amongst users and the wealth of opportunities it provides for the dissemination of information, the commitment to its development already shown by library staff must continue.

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VINE, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

ROY DAVIES

Knowledge can be created by drawing inferences from what is already known. Often some of the requisite information is lacking and has to be gathered by whatever research…

Abstract

Knowledge can be created by drawing inferences from what is already known. Often some of the requisite information is lacking and has to be gathered by whatever research techniques are appropriate, e.g. experiments, surveys etc. Even if the information has all been published already, unless it is retrieved no inferences will be drawn from it and consequently there will exist some knowledge that is implicit in the literature and yet is not known by anyone. This ‘undiscovered public knowledge’, as it is termed by Swanson, may exist in the following forms: (i) a hidden refutation or qualification of a hypothesis; (ii) an undrawn conclusion from two or more premises; (iii) the cumulative evidence of weak, independent tests; (iv) solutions to analogous problems; (v) hidden correlations between factors. Methods of classification may also play a direct role in the creation of original knowledge. Novel solutions to problems may be discovered by generating different combinations of the basic features of the solutions, as is done in morphological analysis. Alternatively a natural classification may identify gaps in existing knowledge. This paper reviews previous work on producing knowledge by information retrieval or classification and describes techniques by which hidden knowledge may be retrieved, e.g. serendipity in browsing, use of appropriate search strategies and, possibly in the future, methods based on Farradane's relational indexing or artificial intelligence.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

ROY DAVIES

Roberts makes an important point in his note when he draws attention to the limitations of databases both in terms of their coverage of the literature and their retrieval…

Abstract

Roberts makes an important point in his note when he draws attention to the limitations of databases both in terms of their coverage of the literature and their retrieval capabilities. These limitations will have two effects on their potential use for creating new knowledge: first, some ‘undiscovered public knowledge’ (to use Swanson's term for apparently novel inferences that could be drawn by making connections between facts that are separated in the existing literature) will escape our notice and second, some of the inferences that are made will turn out not to be new after all since they will have already been suggested in the literature that was not retrieved or not covered by the databases.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

ROY DAVIES

Competition will affect the structure of an industry and the structure will, in turn, affect the behaviour of the firms involved. Two of the most important characteristics…

Abstract

Competition will affect the structure of an industry and the structure will, in turn, affect the behaviour of the firms involved. Two of the most important characteristics of the online information industry are the diversity of hosts and the range of databases offered by each one. The latter is a significant factor in searchers' choices of databases and consequently encourages hosts to compete by acquiring additional databases. This type of non‐price competition plays a key role as it is difficult to make accurate comparisons of the costs of using different hosts. Parallels are drawn with other industries in which competition is, or was, expressed chiefly in the form of capacity. The structure of one sector of the online information industry was investigated by applying Q‐analysis to data on medical databases and hosts. Changes over a three‐year period are identified and are interpreted using concepts derived from ecological niche theory. Finally, the question of what would constitute an optimum structure is considered and it is argued on the basis of an economic theory originally propounded by H. Hotelling that free competition would be unlikely to produce optimal results.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Roy Davies and Brian James

Librarians have sought to reduce the cost of cataloguing by sharing bibliographic data, but it is still an expensive, labour intensive process which is a reason why short…

Abstract

Librarians have sought to reduce the cost of cataloguing by sharing bibliographic data, but it is still an expensive, labour intensive process which is a reason why short entry catalogues have been advocated. Existing computer systems have tended to automate the clerical aspects of cataloguing but developments in artificial intelligence hold out the prospect of automating the professional aspects too. The feasibility of creating an expert system for cataloguing using the PROLOG programming language, was the subject of a postgraduate research project at Exeter University. Such a system would be capable of applying many AACR2 cataloguing rules automatically and would also cope with rules governing local practices.

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Program, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1982

The volume and range of food law enforcement in the field of purity and quality control has grown dramatically in recent times. Only those able to recall the subject from…

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148

Abstract

The volume and range of food law enforcement in the field of purity and quality control has grown dramatically in recent times. Only those able to recall the subject from upwards of half a century ago can really appreciate the changes. Compositional control now appears as more of a closely knit field of its own, keeping pace with the advances of food processing, new methods and raw materials. It has its problems but enforcement agencies appear well able to cope with them, e.g. the restructuring of meat, excess water content, fat content, the application of compositional standards to new products, especially meat products, but the most difficult of all areas is that of securing and maintaining acceptable standards of food hygiene. This is one of the most important duties of environmental health officers, with a considerable impact on health and public concern; and one of the most intractible problems, comparable in its results with the insidious onslaught of the ever‐growing problem of noise, another area dependent on the reactions of people; to use an oft repeated cliche — “the human element”.

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British Food Journal, vol. 84 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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