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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Abdulla Alateeq, Wael Elmedany, Nedal Ababneh and Kevin Curran

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the latest research related to secure routing protocols in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and propose a new approach that can…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the latest research related to secure routing protocols in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and propose a new approach that can achieve a higher security level compared to the existing one. One of the main security issues in WSNs is the security of routing protocols. A typical WSN consists of a large number of small size, low-power, low-cost sensor devices. These devices are very resource-constrained and usually use cheap short-range radios to communicate with each other in an ad hoc fashion thus, achieving security in these networks is a big challenge, which is open for research.

Design/methodology/approach

The route updates and data messages of the protocol are authenticated using Edwards-curves Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA). Routing protocols play an essential role in WSNs, they ensure the delivery of the sensed data from the remote sensor nodes to back-end systems via a data sink. Routing protocols depend on route updates received from neighboring nodes to determine the best path to the sink. Manipulating these updates by inserting rouge nodes in the network that advertise false updates can lead to a catastrophic impact on the compromised WSN performance.

Findings

As a result, a new secure energy-aware routing protocol (SEARP) is proposed, which uses security enhanced clustering algorithm and EdDSA to authenticate route advertisements and messages. A secure clustering algorithm is also used as part of the proposed protocol to conserve energy, prolong network lifetime and counteract wormhole attacks.

Originality/value

In this paper, a SEARP is proposed to address network layer security attacks in WSNs. A secure clustering algorithm is also used as part of the proposed protocol to conserve energy, prolong network lifetime and counteract wormhole attacks. A simulation has been carried out using Sensoria Simulator and the performance evaluation has been discussed.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Neha Jain, Ashish Payal and Aarti Jain

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies which routing protocol is best for application throughput, application delay and network link parameters for different packet sizes. As the routing protocol is used to select the optimal path to transfer data packets from source to destination. It is always important to consider the performance of the routing protocol before the final network configuration. From the literature, it has been observed that RIP (Routing Information Protocol) and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) are the most popular routing protocols, and it has always been a challenge to select between these routing protocols, especially for hybrid networks. The efficiency of routing protocol mainly depends on resulting throughput and delay. Also, it has been observed that data packet size also plays an essential role in determining the efficiency of routing protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyse the effect of different packet sizes using two routing protocols, routing information protocol (RIP) and open shortest path first (OSPF) on the hybrid network, require detailed planning. Designing the network for simulate and then finally analysing the results requires proper study. Each stage needs to be understood well for work accomplishment. Thus, the network’s simulation and evaluation require implementing the proposed work step by step, saving time and cost. Here, the proposed work methodology is defined in six steps or stages.

Findings

The simulation results show that both routing protocols – RIP and OSPF are equally good in terms of network throughput for all different packet sizes. However, OSPF performs better in terms of network delay than RIP routing protocol in different packet size scenarios.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, a fixed network of 125 objects and only RIP and OSPF routing protocol have been used for analysis. Therefore, in the future, a comparison of different network sizes can be considered by increasing or decreasing the number of objects in the proposed network. Furthermore, the other routing protocols can be used for performance evaluation on the same proposed network.

Originality/value

The analysis can be conducted by simulation of the network, enabling us to develop a network environment without restricting the selection of parameters as it minimizes cost, network deployment overhead, human resources, etc. The results are analysed, calculated and compared for each packet size on different routing protocol networks individually and the conclusion is made.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Samia Ben Amarat and Peng Zong

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning, routing algorithm and routing protocols. The paper is further aimed to provide a meaningful comparison among these algorithms and methods and also intend to find the best ones for a particular application.

Design/methodology/approach

The major UAV navigation research areas are further classified into different categories based on methods and models. Each category is discussed in detail with updated research work done in that very domain. Performance evaluation criteria are defined separately for each category. Based on these criteria and research challenges, research questions are also proposed in this work and answered in discussion according to the presented literature review.

Findings

The research has found that conventional and node-based algorithms are a popular choice for path planning. Similarly, the graph-based methods are preferred for route planning and hybrid routing protocols are proved better in providing performance. The research has also found promising areas for future research directions, i.e. critical link method for UAV path planning and queuing theory as a routing algorithm for large UAV networks.

Originality/value

The proposed work is a first attempt to provide a comprehensive study on all research aspects of UAV navigation. In addition, a comparison of these methods, algorithms and techniques based on standard performance criteria is also presented the very first time.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Chirihane Gherbi, Zibouda Aliouat and Mohamed Benmohammed

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches…

596

Abstract

Purpose

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to the taxonomy and several significant metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized recent research results on data routing in sensor networks and classified the approaches into four main categories, namely, data-centric, hierarchical, location-based and quality of service (QoS)-aware, and the authors have discussed the effect of node placement strategies on the operation and performance of WSNs.

Originality/value

Performance-controlled planned networks, where placement and routing must be intertwined and everything from delays to throughput to energy requirements is well-defined and relevant, is an interesting subject of current and future research. Real-time, deadline guarantees and their relationship with routing, mac-layer, duty-cycles and other protocol stack issues are interesting issues that would benefit from further research.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Baban A. Mahmood and Dakshnamoorthy Manivanann

The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) which combines greedy forwarding and backtracking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) which combines greedy forwarding and backtracking.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a hybrid approach. It uses greedy approach to determine a route from source to the destination. If the greedy approach fails, then it uses a backtracking approach. Combining greedy and backtracking approaches results in a more efficient protocol.

Findings

A new routing algorithm for MANETs which performs better than some of the existing algorithms.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this work is that the authors did not implement the protocol on a test bed and evaluated the performance. They neither had the infrastructure nor the resources to actually implement the protocol. Instead, like most of the researchers, they evaluated the performance of their protocol based on extensive simulation. The mobility model, the area of deployment and the density of nodes chosen to simulate the protocol are consistent with what many of the other researchers have done. Intuitively, the authors’ protocol, as the performance evaluation indicates, is likely to perform well in small networks.

Practical implications

The authors did not implement the protocol on a test bed to evaluate the performance of the protocol. The authors used simulation to study the performance of their protocol. Their simulation model is similar to many of the research works published in the literature.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, no other paper has combined the greedy and backtracking approach to design a routing protocols for MANETs.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Leping Huang, Hongyuan Chen, T.V.L.N. Sivakumar, Tsuyoshi Kashima and Kaoru Sezaki

To utilize Bluetooth as a layer 2 multi‐hop subnet for global IP network, there are two missing protocols in current Bluetooth stack: network formation and routing. In…

Abstract

To utilize Bluetooth as a layer 2 multi‐hop subnet for global IP network, there are two missing protocols in current Bluetooth stack: network formation and routing. In this paper, we propose our network formation and routing protocols optimized for such Bluetooth subnset usage scenarios to fill this gap. In this paper, we first present some observations on performance degradations of Bluetooth PAN due to network topologies and topology change when radio independant protocols are implemented. And then we analyze the reason of performance degradation. Based on our analysis, we first propose a flexible scatternet formation algorithm under conference scenario for multi‐hop communication. By using proposed method, scatternet can be formed flexibly with star, mesh, or linked line based on several parameters like number of maximum piconets that a gateway Bluetooth device can participate, and whether loops are needed in the resulting scatternet to achieve better network performance. To utilize topology information in multi‐hop communication, we propose a Cross‐layer Optimized Routing for Bluetooth (CORB) CORB is a QoS‐extended AODV routing protocol with mainly two optimizations between networking layer and underlying Bluetooth MAC layer. The first optimization is to use a new load metric. (LM) in QoS routing protocol instead of number of hops in conventional best effort routing. LM is derived from estimation of nodes’ link bandwidth, which reflects the different roles of nodes in Bluetooth scatternet. This proposal helps routing protocol to bypass heavily loaded nodes, and find route with larger bandwidth. The second optimization is to adjust LM and some MAC layer parameters in response to the unstable network topology caused by movement and change of indoor radio condition. Finally, We present some simulation and experiment results based on implementation, which prove the effectiveness of our protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Yu Wang and Jie Wu

Compared to the traditional wireless network, the multi‐hop ad hoc wireless network is self‐configurable, dynamic, and distributed. During the past few years, many routing

Abstract

Compared to the traditional wireless network, the multi‐hop ad hoc wireless network is self‐configurable, dynamic, and distributed. During the past few years, many routing protocols have been proposed for this particular network environment. While in wired and optical networks, multi‐protocol label switching (MPLS) has clearly shown its advantages in routing and switching such as flexibility, high efficiency, scalability, and low cost. However MPLS is complex and does not consider the mobility issue for wireless networks, especially for ad hoc wireless networks. This paper migrates the label concept into the ad hoc network and provides a framework for the efficient label routing protocol(LRP) in such a network. The MAC layer is also optimized with LRP for shorter delay, power saving, and higher efficiency. The simulation results show that the delay is improved significantly with this cross‐layer routing protocol.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shailja Agnihotri and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the…

482

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There are several issues which are limiting the growth of IoT. These include privacy, security, reliability, link failures, routing, heterogeneity, etc. The routing issues of MANETs and WSNs impose almost the same requirements for IoT routing mechanism. The recent work of worldwide researchers is focused on this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides the literature review for various standard routing protocols. The different comparative analysis of the routing protocols is done. The paper surveys various routing protocols available for the seamless connectivity of things in IoT. Various features, advantages and challenges of the said protocols are discussed. The protocols are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence is applied to achieve optimality and efficiency in solving the complex, multi-hop and dynamic requirements of the wireless networks. The application of the ant colony optimization technique tries to provide answers to many routing issues.

Findings

Using the swarm intelligence and ant colony optimization principles, it has been seen that the protocols’ efficiency definitely increases and also provides more scope for the development of more robust, reliable and efficient routing protocols for the IoT.

Research limitations/implications

The existing protocols do not solve all reliability issues and efficient routing is still not achieved completely. As of now no techniques or protocols are efficient enough to cover all the issues and provide the solution. There is a need to develop new protocols for the communication which will cater to all these needs. Efficient and scalable routing protocols adaptable to different scenarios and network size variation capable to find optimal routes are required.

Practical implications

The various routing protocols are discussed and there is also an introduction to new parameters which can strengthen the protocols. This can lead to encouragement of readers, as well as researchers, to analyze and develop new routing algorithms.

Social implications

The paper provides better understanding of the various routing protocols and provides better comparative analysis for the use of swarm-based research methodology in the development of routing algorithms exclusively for the IoT.

Originality/value

This is a review paper which discusses the various routing protocols available for MANETs and WSNs and provides the groundwork for the development of new intelligent routing protocols for IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Oussama Senouci, Zibouda Aliouat and Saad Harous

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit (RSU), within which routing is one of the most important steps in IoV network.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized different research data on routing protocols in the IoV. Several routing protocols for IoV have been proposed in the literature. Their classification is made according to some criteria such as topology-based, position-based, transmission strategy and network structure. This paper focuses on the transmission strategy criteria. There exist three types of protocols that are based on this strategy: unicast protocol, broadcast protocols and multicast protocols. This later type is classified into two subclasses: geocast and cluster-based protocols. The taxonomy of the transmission strategy is presented in this study. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type with a general comparison between the five types.

Findings

The authors can deduce that many challenges are encountered when designing routing protocols for IoV.

Originality/value

A simple and well-explained presentation of the functioning of the IoV is provided with a comparison among each categories of protocols is well presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The authors examined the main problems encountered during the design of IoV routing protocol, such as the quick change of topology, the frequent disconnection, the big volume of data to be processed and stored in the IoV, and the problem of network fragmentation. This work explores, compares existing routing protocols in IoV and provides a critical analysis. For that, the authors extract the challenges and propose future perspectives for each categories of protocols.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Maulin Patel, S. Venkateson and R. Chandrasekaran

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy…

Abstract

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy supply. Many routing schemes proposed in the literature try to minimize the energy consumed in routing or maximize the lifetime of the sensor network without taking into consideration limited capacities of nodes and wireless links. This can lead to congestion, increased delay, packet losses and ultimately to retransmission of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper presents a Minimum‐cost Capacity‐constrained Routing (MCCR) protocol which minimize the total energy consumed in routing while guaranteeing that the total load on each sensor node and on each wireless link does not exceed its capacity. The protocol is derived from polynomial‐time minimum‐cost flow algorithms. Therefore protocol is simple and scalable. The paper improves the routing protocol in (1) to incorporate integrality, node capacity and link capacity constraints. This improved protocol is called Maximum Lifetime Capacity‐constrained Routing (MLCR). The objective of MLCR protocol is to maximize the time until the first battery drains its energy subject to the node capacity and link capacity constraints. A strongly polynomial time algorithm is proposed for a special case of MLCR problem when the energy consumed in transmission by a sensor node is constant. Simulations are performed to analyzed the performance of the proposed protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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