Search results

1 – 10 of over 5000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Neha Jain, Ashish Payal and Aarti Jain

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies which routing protocol is best for application throughput, application delay and network link parameters for different packet sizes. As the routing protocol is used to select the optimal path to transfer data packets from source to destination. It is always important to consider the performance of the routing protocol before the final network configuration. From the literature, it has been observed that RIP (Routing Information Protocol) and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) are the most popular routing protocols, and it has always been a challenge to select between these routing protocols, especially for hybrid networks. The efficiency of routing protocol mainly depends on resulting throughput and delay. Also, it has been observed that data packet size also plays an essential role in determining the efficiency of routing protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyse the effect of different packet sizes using two routing protocols, routing information protocol (RIP) and open shortest path first (OSPF) on the hybrid network, require detailed planning. Designing the network for simulate and then finally analysing the results requires proper study. Each stage needs to be understood well for work accomplishment. Thus, the network’s simulation and evaluation require implementing the proposed work step by step, saving time and cost. Here, the proposed work methodology is defined in six steps or stages.

Findings

The simulation results show that both routing protocols – RIP and OSPF are equally good in terms of network throughput for all different packet sizes. However, OSPF performs better in terms of network delay than RIP routing protocol in different packet size scenarios.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, a fixed network of 125 objects and only RIP and OSPF routing protocol have been used for analysis. Therefore, in the future, a comparison of different network sizes can be considered by increasing or decreasing the number of objects in the proposed network. Furthermore, the other routing protocols can be used for performance evaluation on the same proposed network.

Originality/value

The analysis can be conducted by simulation of the network, enabling us to develop a network environment without restricting the selection of parameters as it minimizes cost, network deployment overhead, human resources, etc. The results are analysed, calculated and compared for each packet size on different routing protocol networks individually and the conclusion is made.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Samia Ben Amarat and Peng Zong

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a comprehensive review in major research areas of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) navigation, i.e. three degree-of-freedom (3D) path planning, routing algorithm and routing protocols. The paper is further aimed to provide a meaningful comparison among these algorithms and methods and also intend to find the best ones for a particular application.

Design/methodology/approach

The major UAV navigation research areas are further classified into different categories based on methods and models. Each category is discussed in detail with updated research work done in that very domain. Performance evaluation criteria are defined separately for each category. Based on these criteria and research challenges, research questions are also proposed in this work and answered in discussion according to the presented literature review.

Findings

The research has found that conventional and node-based algorithms are a popular choice for path planning. Similarly, the graph-based methods are preferred for route planning and hybrid routing protocols are proved better in providing performance. The research has also found promising areas for future research directions, i.e. critical link method for UAV path planning and queuing theory as a routing algorithm for large UAV networks.

Originality/value

The proposed work is a first attempt to provide a comprehensive study on all research aspects of UAV navigation. In addition, a comparison of these methods, algorithms and techniques based on standard performance criteria is also presented the very first time.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Chirihane Gherbi, Zibouda Aliouat and Mohamed Benmohammed

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches…

Downloads
552

Abstract

Purpose

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to the taxonomy and several significant metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized recent research results on data routing in sensor networks and classified the approaches into four main categories, namely, data-centric, hierarchical, location-based and quality of service (QoS)-aware, and the authors have discussed the effect of node placement strategies on the operation and performance of WSNs.

Originality/value

Performance-controlled planned networks, where placement and routing must be intertwined and everything from delays to throughput to energy requirements is well-defined and relevant, is an interesting subject of current and future research. Real-time, deadline guarantees and their relationship with routing, mac-layer, duty-cycles and other protocol stack issues are interesting issues that would benefit from further research.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Baban A. Mahmood and Dakshnamoorthy Manivanann

The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) which combines greedy forwarding and backtracking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) which combines greedy forwarding and backtracking.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a hybrid approach. It uses greedy approach to determine a route from source to the destination. If the greedy approach fails, then it uses a backtracking approach. Combining greedy and backtracking approaches results in a more efficient protocol.

Findings

A new routing algorithm for MANETs which performs better than some of the existing algorithms.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this work is that the authors did not implement the protocol on a test bed and evaluated the performance. They neither had the infrastructure nor the resources to actually implement the protocol. Instead, like most of the researchers, they evaluated the performance of their protocol based on extensive simulation. The mobility model, the area of deployment and the density of nodes chosen to simulate the protocol are consistent with what many of the other researchers have done. Intuitively, the authors’ protocol, as the performance evaluation indicates, is likely to perform well in small networks.

Practical implications

The authors did not implement the protocol on a test bed to evaluate the performance of the protocol. The authors used simulation to study the performance of their protocol. Their simulation model is similar to many of the research works published in the literature.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, no other paper has combined the greedy and backtracking approach to design a routing protocols for MANETs.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Leping Huang, Hongyuan Chen, T.V.L.N. Sivakumar, Tsuyoshi Kashima and Kaoru Sezaki

To utilize Bluetooth as a layer 2 multi‐hop subnet for global IP network, there are two missing protocols in current Bluetooth stack: network formation and routing. In…

Abstract

To utilize Bluetooth as a layer 2 multi‐hop subnet for global IP network, there are two missing protocols in current Bluetooth stack: network formation and routing. In this paper, we propose our network formation and routing protocols optimized for such Bluetooth subnset usage scenarios to fill this gap. In this paper, we first present some observations on performance degradations of Bluetooth PAN due to network topologies and topology change when radio independant protocols are implemented. And then we analyze the reason of performance degradation. Based on our analysis, we first propose a flexible scatternet formation algorithm under conference scenario for multi‐hop communication. By using proposed method, scatternet can be formed flexibly with star, mesh, or linked line based on several parameters like number of maximum piconets that a gateway Bluetooth device can participate, and whether loops are needed in the resulting scatternet to achieve better network performance. To utilize topology information in multi‐hop communication, we propose a Cross‐layer Optimized Routing for Bluetooth (CORB) CORB is a QoS‐extended AODV routing protocol with mainly two optimizations between networking layer and underlying Bluetooth MAC layer. The first optimization is to use a new load metric. (LM) in QoS routing protocol instead of number of hops in conventional best effort routing. LM is derived from estimation of nodes’ link bandwidth, which reflects the different roles of nodes in Bluetooth scatternet. This proposal helps routing protocol to bypass heavily loaded nodes, and find route with larger bandwidth. The second optimization is to adjust LM and some MAC layer parameters in response to the unstable network topology caused by movement and change of indoor radio condition. Finally, We present some simulation and experiment results based on implementation, which prove the effectiveness of our protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Yu Wang and Jie Wu

Compared to the traditional wireless network, the multi‐hop ad hoc wireless network is self‐configurable, dynamic, and distributed. During the past few years, many routing

Abstract

Compared to the traditional wireless network, the multi‐hop ad hoc wireless network is self‐configurable, dynamic, and distributed. During the past few years, many routing protocols have been proposed for this particular network environment. While in wired and optical networks, multi‐protocol label switching (MPLS) has clearly shown its advantages in routing and switching such as flexibility, high efficiency, scalability, and low cost. However MPLS is complex and does not consider the mobility issue for wireless networks, especially for ad hoc wireless networks. This paper migrates the label concept into the ad hoc network and provides a framework for the efficient label routing protocol(LRP) in such a network. The MAC layer is also optimized with LRP for shorter delay, power saving, and higher efficiency. The simulation results show that the delay is improved significantly with this cross‐layer routing protocol.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shailja Agnihotri and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the…

Downloads
426

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There are several issues which are limiting the growth of IoT. These include privacy, security, reliability, link failures, routing, heterogeneity, etc. The routing issues of MANETs and WSNs impose almost the same requirements for IoT routing mechanism. The recent work of worldwide researchers is focused on this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides the literature review for various standard routing protocols. The different comparative analysis of the routing protocols is done. The paper surveys various routing protocols available for the seamless connectivity of things in IoT. Various features, advantages and challenges of the said protocols are discussed. The protocols are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence is applied to achieve optimality and efficiency in solving the complex, multi-hop and dynamic requirements of the wireless networks. The application of the ant colony optimization technique tries to provide answers to many routing issues.

Findings

Using the swarm intelligence and ant colony optimization principles, it has been seen that the protocols’ efficiency definitely increases and also provides more scope for the development of more robust, reliable and efficient routing protocols for the IoT.

Research limitations/implications

The existing protocols do not solve all reliability issues and efficient routing is still not achieved completely. As of now no techniques or protocols are efficient enough to cover all the issues and provide the solution. There is a need to develop new protocols for the communication which will cater to all these needs. Efficient and scalable routing protocols adaptable to different scenarios and network size variation capable to find optimal routes are required.

Practical implications

The various routing protocols are discussed and there is also an introduction to new parameters which can strengthen the protocols. This can lead to encouragement of readers, as well as researchers, to analyze and develop new routing algorithms.

Social implications

The paper provides better understanding of the various routing protocols and provides better comparative analysis for the use of swarm-based research methodology in the development of routing algorithms exclusively for the IoT.

Originality/value

This is a review paper which discusses the various routing protocols available for MANETs and WSNs and provides the groundwork for the development of new intelligent routing protocols for IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Nabeena Ameen, Najumnissa Jamal and Arun Raj

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook, but because of sensor's resource limitations and other prerequisites, optimal dual route discovery becomes an issue of concern. WSN along with central sink node is capable of handling wireless transmission, thus optimizing the network's lifetime by selecting the dual path. The major problem confronted in the application of security mechanisms in WSNs is resolving the issues amid reducing consumption of resources and increases security.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the proposed system, two metrics, namely, path length and packets delivery ratio are incorporated for identifying dual routes amid the source and destination. Thereafter by making use of the distance metric, the optimal dual route is chosen and data transmission is carried out amid the nodes. With the usage of the recommended routing protocol high packet delivery ratio is achieved with reduced routing overhead and low average end to end delay. It is clearly portrayed in the simulation output that the proposed on demand dual path routing protocol surpasses the prevailing routing protocol. Moreover, security is achieved make use of in accord the data compression reduces the size of the data. With the help of dual path, mathematical model of Finite Automata Theory is derived to transmit data from source to destination. Finite Automata Theory comprises Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) that is being utilized for Dual Path Selection. In addition, data transition functions are defined for each input stage. In this proposed work, another mathematical model is 10; introduced to efficiently choose an alternate path between a receiver and transmitter for data transfer with qualified node as relay node using RR Algorithm. It also includes Dynamic Mathematical Model for Node Localization to improve the precision in location estimation using Node Localization Algorithm. As a result a simulator is built and various scenarios are elaborated for comparing the performance of the recommended dual path routing protocol with respect to the prevailing ones.

Findings

Reliability and fault-tolerance: The actual motive in utilizing the approach of multipath routing in sensor network was to offer path resilience in case of a node or link failures thus ascertaining reliable transmission of data. Usually in a fault tolerant domain, when the sensor node is unable to forward the data packets to the sink, alternative paths can be utilized for recovering its data packets during the failure of any link/node. Load balancing: Load balancing involves equalizing energy consumption of all the existing nodes, thereby degrading them together. Load balancing via clustering improves network scalability. The network's lifetime as well as reliability can be extended if varied energy level's nodes exist in sensor node. Quality of service (QoS): Improvement backing of quality of service with respect to the data delivery ratio, network throughput and end-to-end latency stands very significant in building multipath routing protocols for various network types. Reduced delay: There is a reduced delay in multipath routing since the backup routes are determined at the time of route discovery. Bandwidth aggregation: By dividing the data toward the same destination into multiple streams (by routing all to a separate path) can aggregate the effective bandwidth. The benefit being that, in case a node possesses many links with low bandwidth, it can acquire a bandwidth which is more compared to the individual link.

Research limitations/implications

Few more new algorithms can be used to compare the QoS parameters.

Practical implications

Proposed mechanism with feedback ascertains improvised delivery ratio compared to the single path protocol since in case of link failure, the protocol has alternative route. In case there are 50 nodes in the network, the detection mechanism yields packet delivery of 95% and in case there are 100 nodes, the packet delivery is lowered to 89%. It is observed that the packet rate in the network is more for small node range. When the node count is 200, the packet ratio is low, which is lowered to 85%. With a node count of 400, the curve depicts the value of 87%. Hence, even with a decrease in value, it is superior than the existing protocols. The average end-to-end delay represents the transmission delay of the data packets that have been successfully delivered as depicted in Figure 6 and Table 3. The recommended system presents the queue as well as the propagation delay from the source to destination. The figure depicts that when compared to the single path protocol, the end-to-end delay can be reduced via route switching. End-to-end delay signifies the time acquired for the delay in the receival of the the retransmitted packet by each node. The comparison reveals that the delay was lower compared to the existing ones in the WSN. Proposed protocol aids in reducing consumption of energy in transmitter, receiver and various sensors. Comparative analysis of energy consumptions of the sensor in regard to the recommended system must exhibit reduced energy than the prevailing systems.

Originality/value

On demand dual path routing protocol. Hence it is verified that the on demand routing protocol comprises DFA algorithms determines dual path. Here mathematical model for routing between two nodes with relay node is derived using RR algorithm to determine alternate path and thus reduce energy consumption. Another dynamic mathematical model for node localization is derived using localization algorithm. For transmitting data with a secure and promising QoS in the WSNs, the routing optimization technique has been introduced. The simulation software environment follows the DFA. The simulation yields in improvised performance with respect to packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end-to-end delay and routing overhead. So, it is proved that the DFA possesses the capability of optimizing the routing algorithms which facilitates the multimedia applications over WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Oussama Senouci, Zibouda Aliouat and Saad Harous

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit (RSU), within which routing is one of the most important steps in IoV network.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized different research data on routing protocols in the IoV. Several routing protocols for IoV have been proposed in the literature. Their classification is made according to some criteria such as topology-based, position-based, transmission strategy and network structure. This paper focuses on the transmission strategy criteria. There exist three types of protocols that are based on this strategy: unicast protocol, broadcast protocols and multicast protocols. This later type is classified into two subclasses: geocast and cluster-based protocols. The taxonomy of the transmission strategy is presented in this study. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type with a general comparison between the five types.

Findings

The authors can deduce that many challenges are encountered when designing routing protocols for IoV.

Originality/value

A simple and well-explained presentation of the functioning of the IoV is provided with a comparison among each categories of protocols is well presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The authors examined the main problems encountered during the design of IoV routing protocol, such as the quick change of topology, the frequent disconnection, the big volume of data to be processed and stored in the IoV, and the problem of network fragmentation. This work explores, compares existing routing protocols in IoV and provides a critical analysis. For that, the authors extract the challenges and propose future perspectives for each categories of protocols.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Maulin Patel, S. Venkateson and R. Chandrasekaran

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy…

Abstract

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy supply. Many routing schemes proposed in the literature try to minimize the energy consumed in routing or maximize the lifetime of the sensor network without taking into consideration limited capacities of nodes and wireless links. This can lead to congestion, increased delay, packet losses and ultimately to retransmission of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper presents a Minimum‐cost Capacity‐constrained Routing (MCCR) protocol which minimize the total energy consumed in routing while guaranteeing that the total load on each sensor node and on each wireless link does not exceed its capacity. The protocol is derived from polynomial‐time minimum‐cost flow algorithms. Therefore protocol is simple and scalable. The paper improves the routing protocol in (1) to incorporate integrality, node capacity and link capacity constraints. This improved protocol is called Maximum Lifetime Capacity‐constrained Routing (MLCR). The objective of MLCR protocol is to maximize the time until the first battery drains its energy subject to the node capacity and link capacity constraints. A strongly polynomial time algorithm is proposed for a special case of MLCR problem when the energy consumed in transmission by a sensor node is constant. Simulations are performed to analyzed the performance of the proposed protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000