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THE method of controlling work on the factory varies considerably. It can start from simply telling an operator the quantity required of a certain part, handing him the…
THE method of controlling work on the factory varies considerably. It can start from simply telling an operator the quantity required of a certain part, handing him the blueprint and telling him to get on with the job, to a complex breakdown where everything has been considered in advance, an exact line‐up prepared, and an adherence to a fixed production plan.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a comprehensive modelling technique that supports the assembly of very complex products that require intensive use of both…
The purpose of this paper is to describe a comprehensive modelling technique that supports the assembly of very complex products that require intensive use of both computerized worker guidance and automation. The modelling enables the planning of this complex process.
The proposed approach utilizes and extends typical product documentation (such as route cards and bill of materials (BOM)) to form hierarchical Petri net in a stepwise process. The suggested framework models the dynamic progress of the assembly process, and can generate route card instructions for manual operations, or ladder diagrams (LDs) for automation.
The model can help the generation of computerized control over route cards for manual assembly operations. For automated processes, the translation algorithm of the model to LD enables its application on currently available equipment (programmable logic controllers (PLCs)).
The proposed framework heavily depends on the BOM data quality. So it is crucial to verify that the BOM data is not ill-defined before applying the proposed framework. Future research could report on the implementation of this model in assembly processes, or suggest another modelling technique.
The model enables the integration of computer control over both manual and automated assembly processes. This enables seamless transition between these two very different operations. This ability carries the promise of reducing the cost of code generation and maintenance, and contributes to the progress towards more flexible automation.
This paper presents a new comprehensive modelling technique that may support planning, simulating, tracing, and controlling the assembly process. The technique for the first time integrates modelling of both manual and automated assembly operation.
The paper which I have prepared on the subject of ‘Prototype to Production’ will deal with the forward planning and control necessary to guide a new aircraft through its various phases right up to the completion of the first aircraft.
Presents an empirical stuA co‐branded card is a partnership between a bank or financial institution and a commercial organization. New kinds of organizations are becoming involved and new, high‐value packages are being offered to the consumer. Co‐branded cards, like GM, Ford and AT&T, have made a huge impact on the US market and GM and Ford are doing very well in the UK. Argues that although the European banks have been resisting their incursion, they will not be able to stop this inevitable trend. Discusses the raison d’être of co‐branded cards, what inroads have already been made in Europe and which market sectors are likely to follow.
SOME twenty years gone by I was inspanned into a movement to explain automation to the nation which was said to be apprehensive of its effects on full employment. In vain I explained that automation was industry's response to labour shortage and that unemployment was a consequence of economic not technical policies; that it was impossible to start new industries with an only marginally increasing work force, unless it could be staffed by those deployed from industries whose productivity was rising.
TWO factories were built recently and production was started in them. Both were engaged on similar types of work and time study was applied in both. In one, the time study engineer insisted on determining and applying “permanent” standards although the production flow was intermittent. In the other the time study engineer insisted on setting “temporary” standards because production was intermittent. In both factories incentives were paid based upon the standards fixed.
After current trends towards establishing standards for information systems have been explored a de facto standard for production control is discussed. The article then…
After current trends towards establishing standards for information systems have been explored a de facto standard for production control is discussed. The article then goes on to consider a potential quality information system standard based on the widely accepted requirements of BS 5750. Next it is shown that production control software can be modified to alleviate the present lack of information systems support for quality systems. The article concludes with a functional specification for an integrated production and quality information system.
By 1964, ten years after Skinner's original publication on the subject, programmed instruction has made remarkably little headway in Britain. Some excellent work has been done in the Services and a number of schools have shown an interest, but the industrial firms which have made use of, or are experimenting with, programmed instruction number round about half a dozen.
The Automobile Association is a private organization maintained by members' subscriptions. It exists solely to give service to its members. I am sure you all know this…
The Automobile Association is a private organization maintained by members' subscriptions. It exists solely to give service to its members. I am sure you all know this, but it seems right to start this paper by reminding you of it because many people regard the A.A. as a cross between a public service and a nationalized industry. This is probably because certain things which we do, and are in a unique position to do, are not attempted by anyone else. We have learnt by many years of experience the best, or what seems to us to be the best, way of dealing with various problems with due regard to economy of both labour and money.
One important arena for the study of the impact of larger retailers is, in the UK, the market town. This paper shows how locational policies of larger retailers – akin to…
One important arena for the study of the impact of larger retailers is, in the UK, the market town. This paper shows how locational policies of larger retailers – akin to WalMart openings in the US Midwest – are affecting these traditional towns in rural areas. The paper takes a case study approach by examining the pioneering fightback using the local loyalty card first adopted by Leominster in Herefordshire. Through time it emerges that the community has not been able to sustain its trading opposition to a large format intruder. However, its successes are noted – and study is made of copycat schemes in the UK. A paradox emerges: the most cohesive smaller communities with many independent retailers lack the resources to maintain the fight. Larger settlements can and do support more viable card schemes: but these towns (and cities) having greater populations are themselves already dominated by larger retailers.