The purpose of this study is to answer the research question: How do cooperative organizations perform when created by government fiat in an emerging market? Through the…
The purpose of this study is to answer the research question: How do cooperative organizations perform when created by government fiat in an emerging market? Through the use of institutional and agency theory, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the efficiency of the cooperative form of organization and investor-owned firms-investigating how the social–political structures in a community affect the efficiency of cooperatives vis-à-vis investor-owned firms. This paper also attempts to offer a better understanding of how government quality and organizational size influence performance outcomes between different organizational forms specifically in the Philippines.
Design Methodology Approach
The empirical analysis of this study was conducted among electric distribution utilities in the Philippines. Firm-level data was generated for 133 distributors, consisting of 119 electric cooperatives and 14 investor-owned companies. Panel data regressions were ran to test all hypotheses.
Cooperative organizations operate at a less efficient rate than investor-owned firms in the Philippines, even when controlling for firm-specific factors such as size, customer density and profitability. In addition, the efficiency of these cooperative organizations is more strongly influenced by the quality of the local government than investor-owned firms.
Positive externalities generated by the propagation of cooperatives on local communities may be based primarily on our understanding of how cooperatives have functioned largely in western contexts. Within the context of Southeast Asia, where national socio-political structures may be more dysfunctional, this paper observes that there is an equivalent negative externality caused by the tendency of cooperatives to replicate the political mismanagement of the community around it.
The Philippine health care system is comprised of both private and public hospitals, clinics, and health care providers, and public health units serve a huge majority of…
The Philippine health care system is comprised of both private and public hospitals, clinics, and health care providers, and public health units serve a huge majority of the population because of their number and accessibility to more people in terms of price and location. It is therefore important to examine the performance of these public health units and see if they could become more efficient in the delivery of health services. This study will apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess the efficiency of provinces in providing health care services in order to assist the Department of Health in identifying the performance level of each province, determining the targets for improvements in securing benefits and using resources, and identifying the peers of provinces in the delivery of health care. The data used in this study are taken from the Field Health Service Information System and Philippine Health Insurance System of the Department of the Health and the Statement of Income and Expenditure of the Department of Finance. The following programs were analyzed in this study: Maternal Health Care, Child Health Care, and Environmental Sanitation. These programs’ outcomes comprise the percentage of the prevalence of contraceptive use and fully immunized children, for maternal and child health care programs; and the percentage of people who have access to potable water and sanitary toilets, for environmental sanitation. As for inputs, expenditure efficiency is analyzed by the health unit budget per capita and technical efficiency includes the number of doctors and midwives per 100,000 population and the percentage of rural health units accredited by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation. The DEA results for efficiency expenditure shows that only 9 out of 77 provinces are efficient in providing health programs given their budgets and the average input efficiency score is 54 percent and the average output efficiency score is 87 percent. As for the DEA results for technical efficiency, 24 out of 77 provinces are efficient in providing health care programs given the percentage number of doctors, midwives, and accredited health facilities by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation. The average input efficiency score is 79 percent and the average output efficiency score is 80 percent. This study has shown the importance of DEA in analyzing the efficiency of delivery of public health services in provinces using expenditure, number of available health care providers, and the presence of accredited rural health units vis-à-vis environmental sanitation and maternal and child health care programs. DEA can rationalize the allocation of budgets among similar health units in order to further improve the efficiency in the delivery of health services in provinces. Moreover, benchmarking using DEA results can improve the accountability of provincial health units in the utilization of their budgets in order to further increase the reach of province-based health programs which could lead to a marked improvement in the health of Filipinos.