This article considers the use of charging differential fees for the same tuition services as a means to widen the financial accessibility of non‐government schools to…
This article considers the use of charging differential fees for the same tuition services as a means to widen the financial accessibility of non‐government schools to children of less affluent parents in Australia. After discussing theoretical aspects, the author considers how the theoretical concepts could be operationalized, then how a sliding scale fee schedule could be implemented without, and with, external financial assistance.
A means by which a nexus can be drawn between a secondary school′seducational operations and its resource allocation is suggested.Resources associated with the school′s…
A means by which a nexus can be drawn between a secondary school′s educational operations and its resource allocation is suggested. Resources associated with the school′s teaching and its learning activities are “mapped”, then compared, on a grid of the school′s curriculum arrangements. If it is a non‐government (private) school, the analysis is made by comparing average with “breakeven” class sizes; if it is a government (public) school, the analysis compares the patterns of teaching class periods with pupil periods. The analysis identifies implicit resource cross‐subsidisation among groups of students who take different levels and types of subjects. There is no intention that cross‐subsidisation should be eliminated but decision makers are challenged to justify the revealed pattern of subsidisation in terms of the educational and equity purposes of their school.
A societal and educational analysis established the perspective that Australian teachers are working in a context of societal change, with concomitant pressures on their…
A societal and educational analysis established the perspective that Australian teachers are working in a context of societal change, with concomitant pressures on their traditional approaches and methods. Further education was seen as a major method of assisting teachers to meet these pressures, and the study addressed the problem of developing policies to induce significant numbers of teachers to undertake further education.
It is part of educational folklore that Australian State schoolsystems are highly centralised. A corollary of the lore is that schoolsgenerally lack the organisational…
It is part of educational folklore that Australian State school systems are highly centralised. A corollary of the lore is that schools generally lack the organisational flexibility to cater adequately for the diverse educational needs of their students. This article tests these beliefs as they relate to the States of Queensland and New South Wales. The research finds that the form of system‐level directives is more prescriptive in the latter State. In both States, however, the proportion of time which must be devoted to prescribed activities is less than many would expect, both for teachers and pupils. Even where head office directives appear to constrain, regional office staff can practise “benign neglect” in their policing of the directives, if they can see that there are educationally sound reasons for doing so. The article finds that there is sufficient substance in the folklore to give conservative principals an excuse to resist introducing innovations in their schools. Any principals who are determined to adapt their schools′ operations to better serve the educational needs of their students are however, unlikely to be prevented by central directives.
The Medical Research Council has issued a special report by Dr. W. G. Savage and Mr. Bruce White on food poisoning, based upon a study of 100 recent outbreaks in this country, most of which have not been previously published. The Report is prefaced by a general survey of the different causes of outbreaks of food poisoning, the epidemiological and clinical features of food poisoning, the paths of infection, and prevention of food poisoning. The report is a continuation of the special investigations of Dr. Savage and Mr. White, published in the Medical Research Council Report No. 91, and entitled “An investigation of the salmonella group, with special reference to food poisoning,” which dealt chiefly with the classification and distribution of the salmonella bacteria. By far the commonest cause of food poisoning in this country is infection of food by living salmonella bacteria or by the toxins of these microbes. Salmonella bacteria multiply rapidly in food without betraying their presence by any obvious decomposition, and they secrete powerful endotoxins capable of resisting temperatures as high as 100° C. In 20 of the 100 outbreaks recorded in this report living salmonella bacteria were proved to be the agents of infection, and in 14 of these 20 outbreaks B. aertrycke was the particular member of the group found. The isolation of these bacilli is a difficult procedure, for they are factidious in their diet, and it is worth while noting, in view of the remarks we make elsewhere about the more thorough investigation of outbreaks of food poisoning, that in 6 of these outbreaks the bacilli were only captured from material obtained at post‐mortem examinations; if this material had not been available the bacterial cause would not have been definitely established, though deductions might, of course, have been made from other examinations. It is well known that food in which salmonella bacteria have grown may continue to be poisonous after the bacilli themselves have been destroyed, because the toxin which these germs secrete is more resistant to heat than are the living cells. Food poisoning by the toxins of the salmonella bacteria alone is perhaps the most difficult of all to analyse, because ingestion of these toxins leaves no specific stamp upon the body tissues: thus agglutinins do not appear in the blood serum. It might be thought that the poisonous nature of the food could be demonstrated by feeding experiments on animals, but this method is not often successful because animals are exceptionally resistant to these toxins. The method of injecting extracts of suspected food parenterally has led to many false conclusions in the past, and does not now command much confidence. A promising new method of study was referred to in Report 91—namely, the possibility of demonstrating toxic properties in food by feeding animals with large quantities, killing the animal nine to twelve hours afterwards, and examining the stomach and intestines for evidence of inflammatory reaction. Another new method which we believe Dr. Savage was the first to employ, at any rate on an extensive scale, is the demonstration of the production of specific agglutinins to the salmonella bacilli through the injection into animals of suitable emulsions of the incriminated food. By one method of investigation or another the authors of this report have satisfied themselves that 17 out of the 100 outbreaks should be ascribed to salmonella toxins. Four of the outbreaks were caused by bacteria of the dysentery group. The chief interest of this observation is that it widens our view of food poisoning, for until recently it would have been denied that bacteria of the dysentery type could cause outbreaks of food poisoning indistinguishable in their clinical characters from salmonella infections. Only one outbreak of botulism—that at Loch Maree—is presented in this series. To summarise the cause of these 100 outbreaks of food poisoning, epidemiological and laboratory investigations, separately or together, provided evidence that 66 outbreaks were due to members of the salmonella group of bacilli, 4 to members of the dysentery group, and 1 to B. botulinus. The remainder were either of definitely chemical origin, or possibly due to some undetected microbe, or were not examples of true food poisoning.
Autism results in an asocial mind, and hence, is a disorder worthy of the attention of social psychologists, sociologists and economists. Work in developmental psychology…
Autism results in an asocial mind, and hence, is a disorder worthy of the attention of social psychologists, sociologists and economists. Work in developmental psychology and neuroscience reveals that autistic individuals have a faulty theory of mind and cannot take the attitude of the other. The “mindblind” have a disablement of the neurally-based sympathetic system: they manifest deficits in imitation, in emotional contagion, in understanding the thoughts, desires and plans of other people, in pretending and in conversation. The same intertwined set of deficits is present when, on occasion, non-autists lose their mindseeing abilities. A theory of mind and sympathy are shown to be critical to a variety of forms of social interaction.
This paper aims to extend the literature on wicked problems in consumer research by exploring athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport and the potential role that…
This paper aims to extend the literature on wicked problems in consumer research by exploring athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport and the potential role that social marketing can play in addressing this problem.
This paper conceptualises the wicked problem of athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport, proposing a multi-theoretical approach to social marketing, incorporating insights from stakeholder theory, systems theory and cocreation to tackle this complex problem.
Sport provides a rich context for exploring a social marketing approach to a wicked problem, as it operates in a complex ecosystem with multiple stakeholders with differing, and sometimes conflicting, objectives. It is proposed that consumers, particularly those that are highly identified fans, are key stakeholders that have both facilitated the problematic nature of the sport system and been rendered vulnerable as a result. Further, a form of consumer vulnerability also extends to athletes as the evolution of the sport system has led them to engage in harmful consumption behaviours. Social marketing, with its strategic and multi-faceted focus on facilitating social good, is an apt approach to tackle behavioural change at multiple levels within the sport system.
Sport managers, public health practitioners and policymakers are given insight into the key drivers of a growing wicked problem as well as the potential for social marketing to mitigate harm.
This paper is the first to identify and explicate a wicked problem in sport. More generally it extends insight into wicked problems in consumer research by examining a case whereby the consumer is both complicit in, and made vulnerable by, the creation of a wicked problem. This paper is the first to explore the use of social marketing in managing wicked problems in sport.