Challenging behaviour has been a concern across forensic services. Traditionally these have been managed reactively using medication, seclusion and restraint; however…
Challenging behaviour has been a concern across forensic services. Traditionally these have been managed reactively using medication, seclusion and restraint; however, there is growing evidence that these approaches are ineffective and counter-therapeutic. A number of reports have recommended the use of preventative approaches such as positive behavioural support (PBS). The purpose of this paper is to identify “how staff within a secure forensic mental health setting perceived the application of PBS?”
In total, 11 multi-disciplinary staff were interviewed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes.
Five themes were identified: “The Functions”, “Appraising a new Approach”, “Collaborative Challenges”, “Staff Variables” and “Organisational Issues”.
PBS enables staff to understand challenging or risky behaviour. It empowers patients via collaboration, although there can be some challenges to this. Services need to invest in training, support and leadership to ensure the model is embed and promote fidelity. Consideration needs to be given to how quality of life can be improved within the limits of a forensic setting.
No previous studies asking staff about their experiences of PBS within a forensic mental health context.
This article summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. The main features of this approach are described, and the evidence for its…
This article summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. The main features of this approach are described, and the evidence for its effectiveness outlined. Despite clear empirical support for its use, relatively few people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour appear to have access to this form of therapeutic intervention. Reasons for this are discussed, along with recommendations for future development.
Substance abuse and dependence to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) is a universal public health problem extending across all borders, and including all ethnic…
Substance abuse and dependence to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) is a universal public health problem extending across all borders, and including all ethnic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic boundaries. It is a condition that the nursing profession worldwide struggles to better understan. At the global level, differences in beliefs and practices regarding ATOD have resulted in a wide variation of how these problems are handled and treated.Examining and comparing those between the US and the UK can illustate an example of the differences in addictions nursing practice. Underlying assumptions of the current alcohol and drug policies in the US have been mainly based on prohibition, criminalisation and a drug‐free society ideology (Nadelmann, 1997) while the UK policies have been based on the belief of ‘harm reduction’ (Coyne & Clancy, 1996). This paper discusses some of the historical, philosophical and cultural differences between the US and the UK that have led to the respective differences in societal attitudes and treatment practices for substance abuse or ‘substance misuse’ within these two separate societies.
Aims to provide an analysis of the introduction of Internet‐based skills into small firms. Seeks to contribute to the wider debate on the content and style of training…
Aims to provide an analysis of the introduction of Internet‐based skills into small firms. Seeks to contribute to the wider debate on the content and style of training most appropriate for employees and managers of SMEs.
Purpose – To provide teachers with an outline of characteristics typically associated with young adolescent students and the nature of effective teaching and learning opportunities appropriate at this distinct level of human growth and development.Design/methodology/approach – The chapter presents concepts associated with differentiated instruction and authentic learning activities; both are examined as central when exploring ways to close the learning gap between students of poverty and their more advantaged peers.Findings – The goals of establishing effective pedagogy and closing demographic achievement gaps based on test scores must be addressed in parallel since closing the latter without addressing the first does not produce lasting effects.Research limitations/implications – The authors present a sampling of researchers’ findings related to effective pedagogy for adolescent learners; these include conclusions on differentiated instruction, developmentally appropriate curriculum, technological literacy, inquiry, project-based, and expeditionary learning.Practical implications – Factors that make particular middle schools in a large urban area effective are examined as well as each school’s partnership connection with a college literacy program.Originality/value of chapter – Teachers’ adherence to research-tested methodologies appropriate for adolescent learners requires knowledge of valid, reliable sources, and successful models of implementation.
The study seeks to introduce a new media model that (1) clearly illustrates the role of mass media in the transmission of cultural messages, and (2) helps to explain…
The study seeks to introduce a new media model that (1) clearly illustrates the role of mass media in the transmission of cultural messages, and (2) helps to explain variations in the reception and employment of cultural messages by members of the same culture.
Drawing on decades of theorizing in cultural sociology and communication studies, as well as data from two qualitative content analyses, a new model was developed, explained, and then applied to a specific cultural phenomenon.
Mass media are significant transmitters of cultural messages and play an influential role in shaping culture, yet the process is complex. There is great variety in what messages are accepted by different consumers, how they are interpreted, and how they ultimately are employed (or not). Further, cultures that include contradictory messages are more likely to inadvertently promote deviant paths to culturally valued goals.
First, the model only addresses one dimension of the relationship between mass media and culture; it does not explain cultural influences on mass media. Second, the model does not specifically address recent changes in the media landscape, though an accommodation is suggested. Finally, the model needs additional testing before its utility can be reasonably determined.
First, a new model is introduced that clearly illustrates the complex process by which cultural messages are transmitted to receivers via mass media. Second, the model introduces the concept of “cultural capacity” to complement existing concepts and advance understanding of the operation of culture.
THE library year ends in no spectacular way. If posterity has any cause to remember 1932 it will probably be as of a year when the doctrine of economy was raised to the rank of a divine dogma by a world of debtors and creditors all crazed with fear over international debts. A year of hurried committees producing reports for the reduction of expenditures, beneficient or otherwise; especially, in this last month, a report which if implemented would cripple almost every local activity, and set back the clock of social effort at least thirty years. The intention of such reports is no doubt good; their effects are yet to be seen. So far, the increased parsimony in national and local affairs seems only to have intensified unemployment without bettering the general situation. A reaction against all this is beginning, not a moment too soon, and all who care for the finer things in our civilisation will be compelled to stand against the more unsocial recommendations of these reports.
THIS number of THE LIBRARY WORLD closes one of the most distinguished years in the history of libraries. The opening of the National Central Library by the King on November 7th was undoubtedly the most important public happening in this country, not only of that particular day, but for a very long period. For the first time the highest personage in the land gave his countenance and approval to the work of the public library through the National Central Library which is its natural crown. In describing the Library as “a university which all may join and which none may ever leave,” His Majesty added a memorable phrase to library literature, and gave a new impulse to library activity.
The purpose of this study is to gain insight into psychosocial factors influencing sustainability professionals in their work to lead by influencing and improving…
The purpose of this study is to gain insight into psychosocial factors influencing sustainability professionals in their work to lead by influencing and improving pro-environmental decision-making in their organisations and to increase understanding of psychosocial factors that affect their effectiveness in achieving desired results.
Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a framework, the study enquires into the lived experience of six research subjects. The participants are sustainability professionals and leaders from the UK and Canada. The primary data source is semi-structured interviews, analysed with micro-discourse analysis.
Key psychosocial factors involved in participants’ experience are identified, specifically psychological threat-coping strategies, psychological needs, motivation and vitality, finding complex interactions between them. Tensions and trade-offs between competency, relatedness and autonomy needs and coping strategies such as suppression of negative emotion and “deep green” identity are modelled in diagrams to show the dynamics. How these tensions are negotiated has implications for psychological well-being and effectiveness.
The concepts and models presented in this paper may be of practical use to sustainability professionals, environmentalists and organisation leaders, for example, in identifying interventions to develop inner resources, support authentic and effective action and disrupt maladaptive responses to ecological crisis.
The study contributes insight to understanding of underlying processes shaping environmental cognition and behaviour, particularly in relation to psychological threat-coping strategies and interacting factors. With a transdisciplinary approach, the methodology enables nuanced interpretation of complex phenomena to be generated.