The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer…
The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer burden. Although this association has been well established in the literature, it is not clear whether there are individual symptoms or clusters of symptoms that are particularly burdensome for carers.
A systematic review of the available literature was carried out to determine whether any specific symptom or cluster of symptoms was most closely associated with carer burden. In addition, the categorisation of behavioural symptoms, conceptualisations of burden and methods of measurement used were examined and quality of the studies appraised.
A total of 21 studies measured the association between at least one individual symptom or symptom cluster and carer burden, with all studies finding at least one symptom to be significantly associated with burden. The majority of studies were of fair to good quality. However, there was considerable heterogeneity in focus, analysis, recruitment and measurement of behaviour and burden.
Symptoms, which were found to be significantly associated with carer burden, were aggression/agitation, frontal systems behaviour, disinhibition, disrupted eating and sleeping behaviour, unusual motor behaviour, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. However, because of the heterogeneity of studies, there was insufficient evidence to establish whether any symptoms are more important than others in the development of carer burden. Future focus on clarifying the dimensions of carer burden and the mechanisms by which BPSD impact negatively on carers could inform the development of effective interventions.
This paper dicusses the experience of a team in Sheffield who have established a 3‐year programme, the FACTS project, which aims to develop a framework for changing…
This paper dicusses the experience of a team in Sheffield who have established a 3‐year programme, the FACTS project, which aims to develop a framework for changing clinical practice in primary care. The lessons learnt from the project, which involves a variety of change techniques, are described including the need to tailor programmes to local needs and cultures as well as the use of marketing as a strategy for change.
Many Black women continue to negotiate their way within higher education institutions, which are influenced by social class, race, and gender biases. Several scholars contend that Black women’s objectification as the “other” and “outsider within” (Collins, 2000; Fitzgerald, 2014; Jean-Marie, 2014) is still apparent in today’s institutions yet many persist to ascend to top leadership positions (Bates, 2007; Epps, 2008; Evans, 2007; Hamilton, 2004; Jean-Marie, 2006, 2008). In particular, the inroads made by Black women administrators in both predominantly white colleges (PWIs) as well as historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) depict a rich and enduring history of providing leadership to effect social change in the African American community (i.e., uplift the race) and at large (Bates, 2007; Dede & Poats, 2008; Evans, 2007; Hine, 1994; Miller & Vaughn, 1997). There is a growing body of literature exploring Black women’s leadership in higher education, and most research have focused on their experiences in predominantly white institutions (Bower & Wolverton, 2009; Dixon, 2005; Harris, Wright, & Msengi, 2011; Jordan, 1994; Rusher, 1996; Turner, 2008). A review of the literature points to the paucity of research on their experiences and issues of race and gender continue to have an effect on the advancement of Black women in the academy. In this chapter, we examine factors that create hindrance to the transformation of the composition, structure, and power of leadership paradigm with a particular focus on Black women administrators and those at the presidency at HBCUs. From a review of the literature, our synthesis is based on major themes and subthemes that emerged and guide our analysis in this chapter. The chapter concludes with recommendations for identifying and developing Black women leaders to diversify the leadership pipeline at HBCUs and other institutions for the future.
Discusses the issue of damages in the Court of Appeal decision in Banque Bruxelles Lambert SA v. Eagle Star Insurance . Suggests that policy issues, whether or not…
Discusses the issue of damages in the Court of Appeal decision in Banque Bruxelles Lambert SA v. Eagle Star Insurance . Suggests that policy issues, whether or not made explicit, must inevitably be considered in reaching a conclusion as to which party ought to be liable for damages for economic loss due to a fall in the property market. To do otherwise is to risk making the valuer the insurer of all of the client’s risks.
While there are a number of diversity programs centered on advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) initiatives at colleges and universities…
While there are a number of diversity programs centered on advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) initiatives at colleges and universities throughout the country, the Chicago Area Health and Medical Careers Program (CAHMCP) is unique because of combination of the longevity of the program, its healthcare focus, its affiliation over the years with multiple institutions, and the scale of its impact. CAHMCP is a pipeline program focused on identifying and recruiting students at any point in their academic development, providing educational programming, and supporting them until they are medical professionals.
Over the course of its nearly 40-year history, CAHMCP has recruited participants as early as elementary school and advised them until they were established in their careers. With its combination of personalized mentoring, classroom teaching, and community healthcare engagement, CAHMCP has succeeded in identifying the needs of the community and its young people. Beyond helping students enhance their academic profile over time, CAHMCP helps youth develop as community leaders. Giving back to the community has been a core principle of the program, so as they are matured, CAHMCP alumni have given back to the program as well as influencing broader healthcare and medical education initiatives. This chapter discusses the unique nature of the CAHMCP program and its successes.