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Publication date: 23 November 2017

Rosalie L. Tung

In this chapter, I reflect on my research on expatriation and cross-cultural interactions over the past four decades. I have characterized it as voyages of self-discovery…

Abstract

In this chapter, I reflect on my research on expatriation and cross-cultural interactions over the past four decades. I have characterized it as voyages of self-discovery, as my research questions have been framed by my own experiences in growing up in a bicultural environment in Hong Kong and subsequent relocation to North America. My research findings have helped me understand the what, why, and how of my encounters and observations in the context of international assignments and cross-cultural encounters. The chapter then focuses on my 1981 publication that presented a contingency paradigm of selection and training that generated substantial interest in expatriation. While the contingency paradigm is essentially valid today, I outline four developments that have taken place since then – war for talent, greying of the labor force, rise of emerging markets, and need for global orientation – that necessitate new perspectives in understanding human resource management in the global context. I then allude to how I would rewrite my 1981 paper differently in light of these changes.

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Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2017

Tony Fang, Rosalie L. Tung, Linda Berg and Nazanin Nematshahi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a “parachuting internationalization” metaphor as an alternative strategy that firms may choose to enter foreign markets compared to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a “parachuting internationalization” metaphor as an alternative strategy that firms may choose to enter foreign markets compared to Uppsala Model and Born Global Model. This proposed new metaphor seeks to integrate the Uppsala and the Born Global Models to show that firms can attain success in the age of globalization if they are adept at devising creative strategies that help them overcome the challenges in a psychically distant environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a research paper that develops theoretical perspectives inspired by the Yin Yang thinking as well as the “thick descriptive” multiple case studies.

Findings

“Parachuting internationalization” embraces essential elements of the Born Global and the Uppsala Models and refers to a firm’s strategic targeting of markets with great potentials, correct positioning, swift actions, and fast learning, thus enabling the firm to circumvent the conventional wisdom of liability of foreignness, cultural distance, and psychic distance. “Parachuting internationalization” is essentially a GLOCAL approach which can be implemented in practice in terms of global vision, location, opportunity, capital, accelerated cultural learning and quick action, and logistics.

Research limitations/implications

The “parachuting internationalization” metaphor is derived from interviews with four Scandinavian firms’ experiences that have entered into the Chinese market. This research reveals that two seemingly opposite approaches, i.e., the Born Global and the Uppsala Models, can be fruitfully combined and reconciled to generate a third novel approach.

Originality/value

To date, there has been little attempt to reconcile and/or integrate the Born Global and the Uppsala Models of internationalization. The paper enriches the ongoing debate on the internationalization of firms in the international business literature that has relied primarily on the Uppsala Model or Born Global Model. The study shows that a third way, i.e. the “parachuting internationalization” is both theoretically innovative and practically feasible.

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Abby Jingzi Zhou, Peter J. Williamson and Rosalie L. Tung

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Rosalie L. Tung and Henry F.L. Chung

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544

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Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Rosalie L. Tung

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382

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Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Globalization, Political Economy, Business and Society in Pandemic Times
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-792-3

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Peter Enderwick, Rosalie L. Tung and Henry F.L. Chung

This paper aims to examine the myriad linkages between cross‐border migration and international business activity through a conceptual framework of international arbitrage.

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3356

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the myriad linkages between cross‐border migration and international business activity through a conceptual framework of international arbitrage.

Design/methodology/approach

While labour is internationally the least integrated of the various markets (capital, product, labour) the increasing co‐movement of both tasks and workers has created opportunities for the arbitrage and exploitation of differences between national labour markets. Because national labour markets typically display the two characteristics of separation and price discrepancy it is possible to utilise the principle of arbitrage and within this framework examine cost, intellectual, knowledge and employment arbitrage.

Findings

The discussion suggests that international business offers valuable insights into migration processes and effects which have been dominated by the research approaches of other disciplines. It is found that migrants can help reduce transaction costs for bilateral trade, contribute to nostalgic trade, encourage outsourcing and foreign direct investment through referrals and performance signalling, assist country of origin development through remittances and return migration and provide valuable knowledge to their employers in the country of residence.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is a conceptual one which offers no new empirical results but does provide a context for the interpretation of the more specialised studies that appear in this special issue. There is a need for research on this topic to be firmly grounded in the contemporary context of an increasingly integrated global economy. It also suggests a number of specific areas where further work would be useful.

Originality/value

The key contribution of the paper is in developing a comprehensive conceptual framework – that of labour market arbitrage – which enables a clearer understanding of the complex impacts of international migration on international business activity. It also distinguishes between direct and indirect effects.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Chris Baumann, Hamin Hamin, Rosalie L. Tung and Susan Hoadley

The purpose of this eight-country study is to examine what drives performance at the individual worker’s level and compare the explanatory power of such drivers between…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this eight-country study is to examine what drives performance at the individual worker’s level and compare the explanatory power of such drivers between emerging, newly developed and developed markets around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

The study combines established behavioural theory developed in a Western context with three factors anticipated to be most relevant in Asia (competitive attitude, willingness to serve and speed) as drivers of workforce performance. Four thousand working and middle-class respondents from eight countries were sampled. The associations were tested using structural equation modelling, and workforce performance was measured using univariate analysis.

Findings

Three country clusters emerged from the research: emerging economies in Asia (Indonesia, India), where the three factors powerfully explain performance; “Confucian orbit countries” (China, Japan, Korea), where the factors explain 81-93 per cent; and highly developed Western countries (the USA, the UK, Germany), where the factors account for only 20-29 per cent.

Practical implications

As well as providing a framework for modelling workforce performance, particularly in Asian countries, the findings indicate that workforce performance should be incorporated in performance indexes. The findings as to which drivers best explain workforce performance in each country can inform workforce recruitment and management, as well as the location of businesses and outsourcing.

Originality/value

For the first time, the study addresses the anomaly between economic growth and development experienced by Asian countries and their relatively low rankings in global competitiveness indexes by making the link between workforce performance and country performance.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Chris Baumann, Hamin Hamin and Rosalie L. Tung

This study aims to investigate investing and borrowing behavior in retail banking between ethnic groups, specifically the Caucasians vis‐à‐vis the Chinese.

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2622

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate investing and borrowing behavior in retail banking between ethnic groups, specifically the Caucasians vis‐à‐vis the Chinese.

Design/methodology/approach

A total sample of 645 Caucasians and Chinese in Australia, Canada and China were tested for their level of business assigned to their main banks, defined as share of wallet (SOW) in this study. The study applied multivariate analyses.

Findings

No significant differences were found between the ethnic Chinese in Australia and Canada in comparison to their counterparts in mainland China, or compared with the Caucasians in Australia and Canada. This finding of convergence suggests that ethnic Chinese have adapted to the local banking behavior. The ethnic Chinese in Australia and Canada assigned 81‐88 percent of their assets to their main banks, in comparison to only 72 percent for their counterparts in China and 73 percent for the Caucasians. As such, the ethnic Chinese in Australia and Canada have developed their own unique behavior, resulting in crossvergence: an over‐adaptation to local behavior in managing their assets, and a mid‐way approach between the Chinese in China and the local Caucasians when it comes to borrowing money.

Practical implications

For bank marketing managers, this form of crossvergence constitutes a challenge as it suggests that gaining the trust of Chinese customers is complex since the SOW is lowest in the booming emerging market (i.e. China) whereas ethnic Chinese consumers in Western markets have formed their own unique pattern of allocating business to their banks. “Ethnic banking” is suggested to offer tailored services to ethnic groups in order to satisfy their specific money management.

Originality/value

This study establishes that Chinese consumers in Western markets are a distinct consumer group. Products and services need to be specially customized to suit their wants and needs.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Peter Enderwick

This conceptual paper starts from the recognition that internationalisation of business is an information‐intensive process and aims to investigate two key modes for the…

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1764

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper starts from the recognition that internationalisation of business is an information‐intensive process and aims to investigate two key modes for the acquisition of knowledge: expatriates and immigrant employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper sets out a conceptual framework which examines nine popular modes of knowledge acquisition essential to the internationalisation process and their comparative strengths and weaknesses. This is coupled with a more intensive evaluation of the relative merits of the two strategies of expatriates and immigrant employees.

Findings

The analysis suggests that the modes of expatriates and immigrant employees can both be cost effective and yield high levels of relevant knowledge underpinning internationalisation. However, there are key differences between the two and it may be more useful to consider them as complements rather than simply substitutes. The strength of expatriates is their considerable knowledge of the home market, industry and firm. Their weakness is the need to gradually acquire overseas market knowledge. The strength of immigrant employees is their knowledge of overseas target markets. Their weaknesses are limited understanding of the home country business system, the firm and even the industry.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has several limitations. It is conceptual in nature and tentative in assessment. It does not consider all available knowledge gathering modes. To fully understand this process more research is required, particularly work that extends the narrow case approach typically used.

Practical implications

The analysis suggests that different information gathering modes offer different advantages with none clearly superior in all situations. A similar situation appears to also hold for the modes of expatriates and immigrant employees and the two modes may be more usefully considered as complements.

Originality/value

The key contribution of the paper is in evaluating these two modes from the perspective of market knowledge and diffusion.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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