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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikova and Rong Luo

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of a variety of levels of education, namely, high school, vocational and university education, on the probability of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of a variety of levels of education, namely, high school, vocational and university education, on the probability of being employed in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are from two waves of the Life-in-Transition Survey that covers 29 post-communist transitional countries. The number of binary logistic models is estimated to quantify the effects of different types of education on the likelihood of being employed, while controlling for different sets of covariates.

Findings

The findings reveal that the effect of employment associated with university education is higher than that of vocational education, which in turn is higher than that of high school education. However, the differences between the effects of the various levels of education are not considerable. Any specific level of education is always associated with a higher effect in Eastern Europe as compared to the former Soviet Union. The effect of education is also found to be higher for females than for males. In the former Soviet Union, the positive effect of university and vocational education on employment is found to go down with age.

Originality/value

This is the first study which compares effect of different types of education on probability of being employed on a diverse sample of 29 post-communist countries over the period of five years.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikava and Rong Luo

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test two opposing theoretical hypotheses from research literature: low quality of public education boosts support for public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test two opposing theoretical hypotheses from research literature: low quality of public education boosts support for public education; and low quality of public education weakens support for public education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use microdata from 27 post-communist countries over a period of five years. This study uses two outcome variables in order to capture the level of support for public education: the willingness to elevate investments in public education to an important policy priority; and the willingness to pay more taxes to improve public healthcare. A series of logistic regressions is used to find how the outcome variable is influenced by six dimensions of the quality of the public education system.

Findings

The main finding is that a lower quality of public education strengthens the willingness of citizens to make investments into public education by: making it a political priority for the government; and through a professed increased willingness to pay more taxes towards improving public education. These findings remain valid for both years of investigation and for both EU and non-EU samples. In contrast, the authors could not find support for the hypothesis that postulates that a lower quality of public education will reduce support for public education.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of these findings is that despite the increases in availability of private schooling opportunities, the citizens of post-communist countries have not abandoned their support for public education. Even if citizens of post-communist countries believe that public education is no longer of an appropriately high quality, they continue to support the provision of resources to it in order to improve on the current situation.

Practical implications

The current low quality of public education can be seen as providing an impetus for encouraging support for public education.

Social implications

In terms of policy-making, the findings demonstrate the opportunity to shore up public support for further reforms in public- education in post-communist countries.

Originality/value

The current education policy research literature is silent about the direction of the effect of low quality public education on the willingness to provide support for public education. Against this background, this is the first study which empirically tested whether quality of public education affect willingness to support it. Covering a period of five years, the authors test the above-postulated hypotheses using a diverse sample of 27 post-communist countries.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Nazim Habibov, Alena Auchynnikava, Rong Luo and Lida Fan

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use micro-data from two rounds of a multinational survey conducted in these countries in 2010 and 2016. The outcome variable of interest is the willingness to pay more taxes to support the welfare state. The authors define the welfare state broadly, and focus on support for three main domains of the welfare state, namely, support for the needy, public healthcare and public education. Binomial regression is used to establish influence of interpersonal and institutional trust on welfare state support.

Findings

The authors find that both interpersonal and institutional trust have positive influences on strengthening support for the welfare state against a number of alternative explanations for public support for the welfare state. These positive effects remain the same for all three domains under investigation, namely, helping the needy, public healthcare and public education. Furthermore, these positive effects were observed both in the relatively less developed countries of the FSU and in the more developed Eastern European countries. Moreover, the positive effects of interpersonal and institutional trust on support for the needy, public healthcare and public education were found to grow over time.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that the benefits of nurturing social capital will likely be substantial. Decision-makers, politicians, welfare state administrators and multinational founders (e.g. the UN and World Bank) should acknowledge the role played by trust in influencing the citizenry’s support for the allocation of financial resources toward the development and maintenance of the welfare state. The findings imply that welfare state reforms could prove be more effective within a social context where levels of trust are high. Thus, special attention should be paid to initiatives aimed at developing strategies to build trust.

Practical implications

Social welfare reforms in post-communist transitional countries may fail without active strategies aimed at nurturing institutional trust. One way to nurture institutional trust is through making additional efforts at enhancing the levels of accountability and transparency within a society as well as through increasing citizen engagement. Another way to build increased levels of trust is to take part in a variety of initiatives in good governance put forth by multinational initiatives.

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, this is the first paper which studies effect of interpersonal and institutional trust on support of the welfare state using a large and diverse sample of 27 countries over the period of five years. This is the first study which focuses on post-communist countries where trust is inherently low.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Lian-jiang Wei, Jian-kun Hu, Xin-rong Luo and Wei Liang

The purpose of this paper is to devise novel methods for effectively reducing China’s coal mining accidents via analysis of the relation between coal mine safety…

1024

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to devise novel methods for effectively reducing China’s coal mining accidents via analysis of the relation between coal mine safety production and social factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The variations and characteristics of the safety production for coal mines in China from 1949 to 2013 are studied via induction and statistical analysis of data from the perspective of mortality rate per million tons, raw coal output and death tolls. It is analyzed that the relationship between coal mine safety production level and social economic, safety investment via SPSS.

Findings

Analysis of the coal mine safety management evolution across the 64 years after the founding of China demonstrates that China’s coal mine safety management evolution is partitioned into four stages, and there is the coupling relation between coal mine safety production and structure the of coal industry, government supervision and safety investment. By discussing the similarity between China and America in coal mine safety management evolution, it is found that the rapid increase in the number of accidents during the transformation from agricultural to industrial society is not accidental.

Practical implications

The suggestions in this paper are helpful to improve the current safety situation in China’s coal mines and provide management experience to other coal mining countries.

Originality/value

Based on present and future socioeconomic development, it is proposed that the coal mine safety situation can be further enhanced by properly adjusting the structure of the coal industry, strengthening supervision and ensuring safety investment.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Samuel B. Lazarus, Antonios Tsourdos, Brian A. White, Peter Silson, Al Savvaris, Camille‐Alain Rabbath and Nicolas Lèchevin

This paper aims to describe a recently proposed algorithm in terrain‐based cooperative UAV mapping of the unknown complex obstacle in a stationary environment where the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe a recently proposed algorithm in terrain‐based cooperative UAV mapping of the unknown complex obstacle in a stationary environment where the complex obstacles are represented as curved in nature. It also aims to use an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the fused position of the UAVs and to apply the 2‐D splinegon technique to build the map of the complex shaped obstacles. The path of the UAVs are dictated by the Dubins path planning algorithm. The focus is to achieve a guaranteed performance of sensor based mapping of the uncertain environments using multiple UAVs.

Design/methodology/approach

An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the UAVs, and the 2‐D splinegon technique is used to build the map of the complex obstacle where the path of the UAVs are dictated by the Dubins path planning algorithm.

Findings

The guaranteed performance is quantified by explicit bounds of the position estimate of the multiple UAVs for mapping of the complex obstacles using 2‐D splinegon technique. This is a newly proposed algorithm, the most efficient and a robust way in terrain based mapping of the complex obstacles. The proposed method can provide mathematically provable and performance guarantees that are achievable in practice.

Originality/value

The paper describes the main contribution in mapping the complex shaped curvilinear objects using the 2‐D splinegon technique. This is a new approach where the fused EKF estimated positions are used with the limited number of sensors' measurements in building the map of the complex obstacles.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Marcos Fabricio Machado, Daniel Pacheco Lacerda, Maria Isabel Wolf Motta Morandi, Luis Felipe Riehs Camargo and Aline Dresch

The purpose of the present study is to identify and measure economically the losses related to inventory management in an oil refinery.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to identify and measure economically the losses related to inventory management in an oil refinery.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study was conducted to search for a better understanding of a phenomenon and its implications.

Findings

The results obtained based on the case study suggest the need to observe this phenomenon in other contexts and take managerial actions that will eliminate waste as one of the forms of generating value for the company. The results were related to each other and to the traditional metrics of inventory management and can be used as a base to improve mathematical and computational models for production planning and scheduling and also performance indicators.

Originality/value

No studies have been found that attempt to measure the economic losses derived from inventory management and their capacity in this environment.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Heung Wing‐Ngao

Reports on the first of two joint symposia to be held in South China during 1998. The Zhongshan University Symposium focused on library automation and networking, with six…

16209

Abstract

Reports on the first of two joint symposia to be held in South China during 1998. The Zhongshan University Symposium focused on library automation and networking, with six sessions on specific subthemes and 47 papers on such topics as information resources development and digital libraries, Internet information applications and services, resource sharing and regional cooperation. Participants at the symposium concluded that the standardisation of a Chinese encoding system to cater for all Chinese characters from China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea is a prerequisite for future cooperation and resource sharing. In addition, the panellists agreed that it is important to concentrate on developing library and information networks, especially using Internet technology and related resources.

Details

Asian Libraries, vol. 7 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1017-6748

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2022

Jaspreet Kaur, Rambabu Lavuri, Park Thaichon and Brett Martin

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of scarcity and the Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) consumption tendency on the purchase intention of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of scarcity and the Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) consumption tendency on the purchase intention of organic foods. The study used the protection motivation theory and the stimulus-organism-response theory to understand the impact of comparatively new variables like “perceived scarcity” and “perceived consumer effectiveness” (PCE) on the consumer's organic food purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is using structural equation modeling with 402 organic food consumers. The participants are regular consumers who bought organic food from specialized shops and supermarkets in the previous few months. The data has been collected at organic food specialized shops and supermarkets that sell organic foods.

Findings

The results showed that LOHAS consumption tendency (LCT), scarcity and PCE positively affect attitude. Similarly, LCT and PCE direct affect trust. Scarcity and PCE directly positive impact on purchase intention of organic food products. Interestingly, LCT had no direct impact on the purchase intention of the product. Trust and attitude were found to be significant mediators impacting purchase intention.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the past theoretical literature on LOHAS consumption by analyzing new constructs like scarcity and PCE in the context of organic food consumption. These findings will be crucial for marketers planning to launch organic products in new markets.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Jie Liu, Guilin Wen, Qixiang Qing, Fangyi Li and Yi Min Xie

This paper aims to tackle the challenge topic of continuum structural layout in the presence of random loads and to develop an efficient robust method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to tackle the challenge topic of continuum structural layout in the presence of random loads and to develop an efficient robust method.

Design/methodology/approach

An innovative robust topology optimization approach for continuum structures with random applied loads is reported. Simultaneous minimization of the expectation and the variance of the structural compliance is performed. Uncertain load vectors are dealt with by using additional uncertain pseudo random load vectors. The sensitivity information of the robust objective function is obtained approximately by using the Taylor expansion technique. The design problem is solved using bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization method with the derived sensitivity numbers.

Findings

The numerical examples show the significant topological changes of the robust solutions compared with the equivalent deterministic solutions.

Originality/value

A simple yet efficient robust topology optimization approach for continuum structures with random applied loads is developed. The computational time scales linearly with the number of applied loads with uncertainty, which is very efficient when compared with Monte Carlo-based optimization method.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Qi Zhou, Xinyu Shao, Ping Jiang, Tingli Xie, Jiexiang Hu, Leshi Shu, Longchao Cao and Zhongmei Gao

Engineering system design and optimization problems are usually multi-objective and constrained and have uncertainties in the inputs. These uncertainties might…

Abstract

Purpose

Engineering system design and optimization problems are usually multi-objective and constrained and have uncertainties in the inputs. These uncertainties might significantly degrade the overall performance of engineering systems and change the feasibility of the obtained solutions. This paper aims to propose a multi-objective robust optimization approach based on Kriging metamodel (K-MORO) to obtain the robust Pareto set under the interval uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

In K-MORO, the nested optimization structure is reduced into a single loop optimization structure to ease the computational burden. Considering the interpolation uncertainty from the Kriging metamodel may affect the robustness of the Pareto optima, an objective switching and sequential updating strategy is introduced in K-MORO to determine (1) whether the robust analysis or the Kriging metamodel should be used to evaluate the robustness of design alternatives, and (2) which design alternatives are selected to improve the prediction accuracy of the Kriging metamodel during the robust optimization process.

Findings

Five numerical and engineering cases are used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. The results illustrate that K-MORO is able to obtain robust Pareto frontier, while significantly reducing computational cost.

Practical implications

The proposed approach exhibits great capability for practical engineering design optimization problems that are multi-objective and constrained and have uncertainties.

Originality/value

A K-MORO approach is proposed, which can obtain the robust Pareto set under the interval uncertainty and ease the computational burden of the robust optimization process.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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