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This paper seeks to review the geophysical threats generated by volcanic activity and reports on the technological and social management techniques available to counter…
This paper seeks to review the geophysical threats generated by volcanic activity and reports on the technological and social management techniques available to counter those threats.
The information presented was derived from a review of case studies of response to volcanic eruptions in the USA, Europe and Japan. The studies reviewed included both technical papers from geologists and volcanologists and research by social scientists.
The unique relationship between human settlements and volcanoes was described. This was done in the context of special features of volcanic hazards that set them apart from other natural hazards: time frame, multiple impacts, magnitude of destructive potential and predictability. Based on pairing geophysical threats with human safety concerns, three critical social management techniques were described: public education, access controls and evacuation systems. The social science and geophysical principles that underlie the effectiveness of these techniques are described.
The review brings together the results of numerous case studies over the years and highlights the hazard management issues that were common across them. Then, with respect to each of the techniques identified, a critique of issues associated with implementation was conducted that draws upon both the geophysical literature and social science literature. In particular, patterns of citizen resistance to public education, access controls and evacuation are described and approaches to implementation that minimize such resistance are suggested.
There are many discussions in the geophysics literature of the types and nature of volcanic eruptive behavior. In the social science literature there are discussions of public education strategies for hazards, controlling access to dangerous locations and evacuation systems. This paper pairs geophysical threats with appropriate techniques for protecting populations, specifically within the unique context of volcanic eruptions. There is also discussion of common problems that have arisen when the different techniques have been used in the past and suggestions for ways to avoid those problems. The paper is aimed at professional emergency managers and planners who are faced with managing dangers to populations from volcanicity.
In the USA, terrorist threats captured government attention following 11 September 2001. Cities remain the most likely setting for terrorist incidents. Many cities…
In the USA, terrorist threats captured government attention following 11 September 2001. Cities remain the most likely setting for terrorist incidents. Many cities, building on a successful federal program begun in 1997, have developed metropolitan medical response systems (MMRS) to address the consequences of terrorist incidents. The basic system design has been tested both through drills and incidents – including the attacks on the World Trade Center – and appears to function well. This paper describes the philosophy and elements of the MMRS model. The model has considerable value as a readily exportable strategy for responding to municipal terrorist incidents.
Particularly since the 11 September terrorist attacks in the USA, much attention has been given to the development and implementation of incident management systems (IMS)…
Particularly since the 11 September terrorist attacks in the USA, much attention has been given to the development and implementation of incident management systems (IMS). The IMS is a tool for marshalling pre‐identified and pre‐assembled resources to respond to an emergency or disaster. IMS is particularly useful when personnel and resources from many agencies and jurisdictions are required to manage large incidents successfully. While many IMS have been devised over the years, their use remains intermittent. This paper traces the evolution of IMS, reviews how it can be integrated into jurisdictional emergency and disaster management, and specifies the structures that are used in most incident management systems at the municipal level.
There is a prevailing assumption in the research literature that disaster exercises produce a wide variety of benefits that promote effective emergency management…
There is a prevailing assumption in the research literature that disaster exercises produce a wide variety of benefits that promote effective emergency management. Unfortunately, there are few studies available that confirm this assumption. This paper reviews the role of exercises in disaster management and places them within the context of preparedness activities. Within this context, the links among planning, training and exercising are explicated. The potential benefits of exercises are reviewed and hypotheses generated that link exercise experiences with emergency responders’ perceptions of planning adequacy, training adequacy, teamwork, response network effectiveness, equipment adequacy and job risk. The effects of two exercises – one dealing with hazardous materials and one with medical mass casualties – are examined using a quasi‐experimental research design. The subjects were professional firefighters. Results indicated that successful exercises can enhance perceptions of teamwork, training adequacy, response network effectiveness, job risk, and equipment adequacy. The link between exercise participation and perception of planning adequacy was found to be equivocal.
Addresses the issue of the structure and function of the communityemergency operations centre (EOC). There is some confusion among someemergency responders and…
Addresses the issue of the structure and function of the community emergency operations centre (EOC). There is some confusion among some emergency responders and particularly among public officials regarding the role and function of the EOC. In part this emerges because many EOCs at different levels operate in conjunction with any given disaster. It is argued that the community EOC is best seen as an over‐arching organization into which information from more specialized EOCs – such as those operated by fire and police departments – flows, and from which the overall response to the disaster is directed. There is also a tendency to define the functions of the community EOC narrowly. Such definitions typically understate the importance of such activities as damage assessment and public information, and consequently leave the responsibility for these and related critical functions somewhat ambiguous. Seeks to achieve an explicit definition of the range and content of disaster responsibilities associated with the community EOC and thereby to clarify and contribute more to effective community‐wide disaster response.
The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III…
The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III, contains features to help the reader to retrieve relevant literature from MCB University Press' considerable output. Each entry within has been indexed according to author(s) and the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus. The latter thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid retrieval. Each article or book is assigned its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. This Volume indexes 29 journals indicating the depth, coverage and expansion of MCB's portfolio.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and…
The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and practice have focused primarily on individuals’ characteristics and behaviors as a means to understand “who” is influential in organizations, with substantially less attention paid to social networks. To reinvigorate a focus on network structures to explain interpersonal influence, the authors present a comprehensive account of how network structures enable and constrain influence within organizations. The authors begin by describing how power and status, two key determinants of individual influence in organizations, operate through different mechanisms, and delineate a range of network positions that yield power, reflect status, and/or capture realized influence. Then, the authors extend initial structural views of influence beyond the positions of individuals to consider how network structures within and between groups – capturing group social capital and/or shared leadership – enable and constrain groups’ ability to influence group members, other groups, and the broader organizational system. The authors also discuss how HRM may leverage these insights to facilitate interpersonal influence in ways that support individual, group, and organizational effectiveness.
Organizational behavior scholars have long recognized the importance of a variety of emotion-related phenomena in everyday work life. Indeed, after three decades, the span…
Organizational behavior scholars have long recognized the importance of a variety of emotion-related phenomena in everyday work life. Indeed, after three decades, the span of research on emotions in the workplace encompasses a wide variety of affective variables such as emotional climate, emotional labor, emotion regulation, positive and negative affect, empathy, and more recently, specific emotions. Emotions operate in complex ways across multiple levels of analysis (i.e., within-person, between-person, interpersonal, group, and organizational) to exert influence on work behavior and outcomes, but their linkages to human resource management (HRM) policies and practices have not always been explicit or well understood. This chapter offers a review and integration of the bourgeoning research on discrete positive and negative emotions, offering insights about why these emotions are relevant to HRM policies and practices. We review some of the dominant theories that have emerged out of functionalist perspectives on emotions, connecting these to a strategic HRM framework. We then define and describe four discrete positive and negative emotions (fear, pride, guilt, and interest) highlighting how they relate to five HRM practices: (1) selection, (2) training/learning, (3) performance management, (4) incentives/rewards, and (5) employee voice. Following this, we discuss the emotion perception and regulation implications of these and other discrete emotions for leaders and HRM managers. We conclude with some challenges associated with understanding discrete emotions in organizations as well as some opportunities and future directions for improving our appreciation and understanding of the role of discrete emotional experiences in HRM.