Search results

1 – 10 of 19
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Taotao Chen, Ronald W. McQuaid and Maktoba Omar

The purpose of this paper is to develop a double mechanism model to separate two foreign direct investment (FDI) intra-industry spillovers mechanisms: spillovers by FDI…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a double mechanism model to separate two foreign direct investment (FDI) intra-industry spillovers mechanisms: spillovers by FDI intensity and by FDI efficiency. This paper seeks to illustrate the potential use of the double mechanism model rather than provide precise estimates of spillovers. The evidence on the links between technology and the nature, size and mechanisms of FDI spillovers effects in economically developing countries is mixed.

Design/methodology/approach

A model is developed and tested, in principle. Empirical testing was conducted in two steps. In the first step, the authors examined the effect of each influencing factor to FDI spillovers separately. To complete this step, the authors divided the whole sample industry into sub-groups and tested them with the double-mechanism using ordinary least squares regression. This study applies Chinese National Bureau of Statistics manufacturing industry level data, for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002, including the food industry, beverage industry, textile industry, textiles and garments, chemicals and chemical products industry, overall manufacturing equipment, special equipment, computer and other electronic equipment manufacturing industries.

Findings

The analysis suggests significant differences between types of spillovers: export orientation of domestic firms mainly influences FDI spillovers by intensity; the capability gap between local and foreign firms influences spillovers by efficiency; and the growth of local firms influences both types of spillovers. This paper develops existing models of FDI and suggests that disaggregating spillovers types may provide important theoretical and policy insights.

Originality/value

This study has found, first, that compared with the classic single mechanism model, the double mechanism model is more appropriate for testing FDI intra-industry spillovers, as it is able to separate spillovers by intensity and spillovers by efficiency, which are shown as two distinct mechanisms for FDI spillovers. This allows a deeper analysis into each mechanism and the identification of relevant influencing factors.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Ronald W. McQuaid, Malcolm Greig and John Adams

This paper tests the appropriateness of government employment policies in targeting specific groups of unemployed job seekers in the UK. A sample of 169 job seekers is…

Abstract

This paper tests the appropriateness of government employment policies in targeting specific groups of unemployed job seekers in the UK. A sample of 169 job seekers is divided into those who were successful and unsuccessful in finding employment and the attributes of each group is analysed. A factor analysis of these attributes is carried out in order to develop typical profiles of unsuccessful job seekers and these profiles are compared with current policy target groups. The findings show that high levels of accumulated human and financial capital, non‐metropolitan residence and accessibility to centres of employment have a positive impact on job search success. This casts doubt on the appropriateness of using socio‐demographic and local area characteristics to select job seekers for assistance, when other factors appear to have more bearing on job search success. The only current policy target group fully justified by this study is the long‐term unemployed, who had a significantly lower chance of finding unemployment.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Vidya M. Iyer and Kartik Dave

The world is seeing a large deficit in employable workforce. An employable workforce is developed with appropriate combination of academic and practical skills. Practical…

Abstract

Purpose

The world is seeing a large deficit in employable workforce. An employable workforce is developed with appropriate combination of academic and practical skills. Practical skills are better developed with industry intervention rather than in classrooms. Changing trends of economic activity have steadily changed the business thought. The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of industry in developing employability by studying employability from the value chain and “Demand-Supply” of workforce models. The scope is limited to Indian context. This paper is a part of the research on factors influencing employability in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review, expert interviews and authors’ own experiences and understanding.

Findings

It has been found that most of the countries in the world are facing a shortage of skilled and employable workforce. We examined various literature content and studied specific instances in the Industry. The study has shown that in the cases where industry has been actively involved in identifying training needs, the supply of manpower has been adequate. So, it is found that industry's role in employability is crucial and impacts on other macro policies for human development.

Social implications

As this paper is a part of a larger study on “Factors impacting employability in India,” it is of paramount importance to Indian researchers, students and policy makers. The paper and the research are oriented to identifying causes to the problem of employability, so that systemic changes can be identified.

Originality/value

This paper is based on large amount of literature that is existing in various sources. All the literature has been thoroughly read and assimilated. Suitable references have cited and others have been acknowledged. Most importantly this is an original work of the authors and their views.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2019

Ronald McQuaid

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess some of the micro- and macro-economic reasons for using public finance initiative types of public–private partnerships…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess some of the micro- and macro-economic reasons for using public finance initiative types of public–private partnerships (PPPs) and how a lack of transparency may result in an “illusion” of making optimal, rational decisions related to them. A series of balances that decision makers need to make in order to choose whether or not to use PPPs are set out, as well as 15 potential “illusions” may affect such decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper synthesizes published evidence and develops a framework for analyzing PPPs.

Findings

A wide range of factors influence the choice of PPPs, including: budget enlargement; efficiency and value for money; certainty of expenditure and delivery; flexibility; financing costs; risk sharing; procurement process and transaction costs; legacy and public assets; and the wider impacts on the local economy. However, reasons why PPPs can provide improved infrastructure and services may not be realised due to in-built incentives, behavioural biases and implementation shortcomings. Necessary support for PPPs includes strong, robust and transparent regulatory and governance systems, the dissemination of good practice to all partners, consideration of alternative funding models and high-quality advice and training.

Research limitations/implications

The paper sets out a number of reasons for using PPPs, and also assesses potential drawbacks and identifies areas where greater research is required. A number of potential “illusions” are identified, whereby decisions may be affected by factors not explicitly or transparently considered, hence giving the decision an “illusion” being rational.

Practical implications

PPPs are significantly influenced by the socio-economic, legal, legislative and financial system they are embedded in. A clear process for approving projects and recognising all the costs and benefits of PPPs is needed, including developing criteria and instruments to measure each phase of a PPP and its overall value added to the economy and society over its lifetime. Full transparency, having suitable support and explicitly taking account of potential “illusions” affecting decisions, could lead to different decisions, including the decision not to progress the project or to use alternative funding and development methods.

Social implications

Decisions on PPPs should be based on a clear and transparent long-term basis which includes the perspectives of the full range of stakeholders to help improve the appropriate operation and social sustainability of a PPP.

Originality/value

The paper sets out some key arguments for and against the use of PPPs in different circumstances, including why non-optimal decisions may be made.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2019

Kaberi Gayen, Robert Raeside and Ronald McQuaid

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of social networks, and the social capital embedded in them, to secure employment if someone had become…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of social networks, and the social capital embedded in them, to secure employment if someone had become unemployed after the age of 50 years and to reveal the process of accessing and mobilising that social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a Scottish labour market was undertaken which involved an interview-based survey of those who became unemployed in their early 50’s and tried to regain employment. The interview had structured and unstructured parts which allowed both quantitative and qualitative analysis to compare those who were successful in regaining work with those who were not. The uniqueness of the paper is the use of social network components while controlling for other socio-economic and demographic variables in job search of older workers.

Findings

Those older people who were unemployed and, returned to employment (reemployed) had a higher proportion of contacts with higher prestige jobs, their job searching methods were mainly interpersonal and the rate of finding their last job via their social networks was higher than those who remained unemployed. Both groups mobilised social capital (MSC), but those reemployed accessed higher “quality” social capital. “Strong ties”, rather than “weak ties”, were found to be important in accessing and mobilising social capital for the older workers who returned to employment.

Research limitations/implications

This work is limited to a local labour market and is based on a small but informative sample. However, it does show that policy is required to allow older people to enhance their social networks by strengthening the social capital embedded in the networks. The results support the use of intermediaries as bridges to help compensate for older people who have weak social networks. Besides the policy implications, the paper also has two distinct research implications. First, the use of social network component to the existing literature of older workers’ job search. Second, exploring the type and relational strength with network members to explain older workers’ reemployment.

Practical implications

The paper illustrates that how accessed and MSC can be measured.

Social implications

As populations age, this work points to an approach to support older people to re-enter employment and to include them in society.

Originality/value

The paper extends social network and employment literature to fill gaps on how older people require to both access and mobilise social capital. The importance of “strong ties” in the reemployment of older workers contrasts with much of the literature on younger workers where the “strength of weak ties” so far has been regarded as essential for successful job search. Measures are forwarded to reveal the relevance of social capital. The policy value of the work is in suggesting ways to facilitate older people re-enter or remain in work and hence sustain their well-being.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Aleksandra Webb, Ronald William McQuaid and C. William R. Webster

This article investigates some ongoing issues faced by higher education institutions (HEIs) having to rapidly move their teaching online during the early stages of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article investigates some ongoing issues faced by higher education institutions (HEIs) having to rapidly move their teaching online during the early stages of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The article incorporates a review of academic and policy literature concerning digitalisation and online learning in universities and qualitative interviews with staff involved in online teaching and learning at a university in Scotland.

Findings

For most HEIs and organisations across the globe, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the speed at which digitalisation and digital ways of working have been embedded in organisational life and service delivery including new ways of learning and working. This has led to a recognition of the need for practically focused, effective inclusive digital interventions. A range of initiatives that have been developed or accelerated in response to the pandemic are discussed. These should be explicitly designed and implemented to also reach individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, including those with low-skill levels or qualifications and older age groups. Effort is also needed by policymakers and HEIs to better understand the challenges and unintended consequences that digital learning and working poses.

Research limitations/implications

More research is needed into the methods and implications of increased online teaching. The range of interviewees is limited to one main organisation. A wider range of staff, students, HEIs and other types of organisation would add additional insights.

Practical implications

Insights from interviews highlight a number of institutional responses to digitalisation, which were accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. These identify learning and reflection points for HEIs moving to enhanced online teaching provision.

Originality/value

This article provides an analysis of the processes, issues and impacts associated with the rapid shift to digitisation in HEIs at a point in time shortly following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. It raises issues around inclusivity of online learning, pedagogy, unintended consequences of digitalisation and privacy, when moving to online teaching that are relevant both during the pandemic and in the longer term.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Claire Seaman and Ronald McQuaid

This paper considers the multiple social networks of small family businesses and the dynamic interactions between them. It analyses family, friendship and business…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper considers the multiple social networks of small family businesses and the dynamic interactions between them. It analyses family, friendship and business networks and the way additional ties within the networks become visible when they are considered together rather than separately.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews of thirteen family-owned and managed businesses are used to establish the patterns of networking. A detailed case study is then presented, allowing a deeper qualitative analysis of the interaction of different types of networks.

Findings

The findings explore multiple rationalities employed in the networking of family businesses and how different aspects of their individual family, friendship and business networks contribute to business development.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that a multi-rational theoretical perspective of the family, rather than a solely business-related perspective, deepens the understanding of the dynamics of family businesses behavior and that different types of businesses may be influenced to varying degrees by different rationalities.

Practical implications

Business networking tends to be deliberately encouraged by business support agencies, often via the deliberate development of events. A deeper understanding of the manner in which small businesses use and develop networks would enhance the direction and effectiveness of such investment.

Social implications

Family businesses, especially micro- small- and SME businesses, are often integral to the communities in which they are based. By viewing family businesses within their social space, we acknowledge the importance of the community around them and the integrated nature of family, business and community in rural areas.

Originality/value

The value of this research lies in the proposition that smaller businesses in rural areas are often surrounded by the inter-woven networks of family, business and community.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Aleksandra Webb, Ronald McQuaid and Sigrid Rand

Although the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic appears to disproportionately affect those in informal employment, they often receive less government support than the…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic appears to disproportionately affect those in informal employment, they often receive less government support than the formally employed. This paper considers definitions of the informal economy and informal employment, explores the rationale for participating in the informal economy and reflects on some effects of the pandemic on these workers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a narrative literature review with analysis of the selected academic and policy literature.

Findings

There are considerable short- and long-term implications of the pandemic for informal employment and the informal economy. This occurs against the background of unresolved tensions arising from informal workers' desire for more employment security and employers' striving for continued labour flexibility while transferring costs to government and workers. The COVID-19 pandemic might accelerate current trends and force new solutions to better protect basic work security while helping organisations to remain competitive. Government policies supporting work safety, income security, moves to formalisation of employment and fairness for informal employees are particularly important.

Research limitations/implications

As statistical and qualitative evidence is currently limited, it is too early to identify the full effects of COVID-19 on employment in the informal economy.

Practical implications

The results suggest that governments need to carefully consider explicit support for those in informal employment to create fair, resilient and ethical structures for workers, businesses, economies and wider societies.

Social implications

The paper identifies some of the social implications of COVID-19 for the informal sector.

Originality/value

The analysis offers initial insights into the impacts of a major health, economic and social shock on informal working.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2013

Vanesa Fuertes, Valerie Egdell and Ronald McQuaid

The purpose of this paper is to present a study of age management in small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a study of age management in small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collection and exploratory research with six SMEs comprising of: initial interviews with representatives from the SMEs; action research activities designed to raise awareness of age management issues and age discrimination legislation; and follow‐up interviews to ascertain if awareness raising activities resulted in any changes, or planned changes, in policy, practice and attitudes towards older workers.

Findings

Good practice in age management can be found in SMEs, but was not found to be part of a systematic strategy. Negative practices and attitudes towards older workers are observed, with positive and negative age stereotypes coexisting. Negative stereotypes displayed can undermine the perceived economic value of older workers. There may be a gap between policy and practice, but awareness raising campaigns that reach employers can influence existing ways of working by showing the benefits of an age diverse workforce and helping reduce prejudices against older workers.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is small and context specific. However, the study usefully illustrates different approaches to age management policies and practices in SMEs, and the potential benefits of age management awareness in influencing attitudes and practices towards older workers in SMEs.

Originality/value

The experience of age management in SMEs is under researched and examples of good practice in age management are often drawn from large organisations. The paper highlights that SMEs often lack the resources to seek advice regarding age management; therefore, those responsible for age management awareness raising activities may need to approach businesses directly.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Bryan McIntosh, Ronald McQuaid, Anne Munro and Parviz Dabir‐Alai

After many years of equal opportunities legislation, motherhood still limits womens' career progress even in a feminized occupation such as nursing. While the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

After many years of equal opportunities legislation, motherhood still limits womens' career progress even in a feminized occupation such as nursing. While the effect of motherhood, working hours, career breaks and school aged children upon career progression has been discussed widely, its actual scale and magnitude has received less research attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of these factors individually and cumulatively.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers the impact of the above through a longitudinal analysis of a demographically unique national database, comprising the 46,565 registered nursing workforces in NHS Scotland from 2000‐2008. The variables examined include gender, employment grades, number and length of career breaks, lengths of service, age, working patterns, the number and age of dependent children.

Findings

The results indicate: motherhood has a regressively detrimental effect on women's career progression. However, this is a simplistic term which covers a more complex process related to the age of dependent children, working hours and career breaks. The degree of women's restricted career progression is directly related to the school age of the dependent children: the younger the child the greater the detrimental impact. Women who take a career break of greater than two years see their careers depressed and restricted. The results confirm that whilst gender has a relatively positive effect on male career progression; a women's career progression is reduced incrementally as she has more children, and part‐time workers have reduced career progression regardless of maternal or paternal circumstances.

Originality/value

This paper is the only example internationally, of a national workforce being examined on this scale and therefore its findings are significant. For the first time the impact of motherhood upon a women's career progression and the related factors – dependent children, career breaks and part‐time working are quantified. These findings are relevant across many areas of employment and they are significant in relation to broadening the debate around equal opportunities for women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

1 – 10 of 19