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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on school campuses have prompted numerous crime prevention responses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on school campuses have prompted numerous crime prevention responses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of protective measures such as law enforcement, security policies, and school/neighborhood characteristics on school violence within the context of the racial composition of the school and grade level.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study were part of the School Survey on Crime and Safety collected in 2006. The dependent measures of school violence include reports of serious violence, physical attacks/fights, gun or knife possession, and threats and attacks with a weapon. The sample was divided by racial composition of the school (predominately white, and predominately minority schools) and by grade level (high schools, and all other grades). A negative binomial regression was conducted due the count-based dependent variables.

Findings

Findings revealed that minority schools often face higher levels of reported violence and had a heavier law enforcement presence, which often had mixed or counterproductive results for reducing school violence. School characteristics, such as reports of bullying, location, gang activity, and security measures yielded numerous statistically significant results.

Research limitations/implications

Officials proposing school violence prevention efforts should strongly consider the importance of school and community characteristics, most notably grade level, and the unique context of a predominately white or minority school as there were different statistically significant results. Furthermore, officials should be cautious about relying on simple efforts such as more security personnel to address school violence. Violence and crime on school grounds should not be viewed as being isolated from violence and other forms of crime in the community. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.

Originality/value

This study differs from much of the previous literature, which typically examines student and administrator attitudes about victimization and crime prevention. The current study examines detailed information on the effects of school violence prevention efforts and moves beyond most other works as it considers school safety approaches within the context of racial composition of the school and by different grade levels.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Robert Hartmann McNamara, Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

The homeless are a common sight in many cities and their actions frequently bring them into contact with the police. However, little is known about police policy and the…

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4341

Abstract

Purpose

The homeless are a common sight in many cities and their actions frequently bring them into contact with the police. However, little is known about police policy and the homeless. The aim of this research was to examine policy, practices, and perceptions of the police and the homeless.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was mailed to 100 police departments in the United States to gather information about their policies, resources, and amount of contact with the homeless. A Chi square statistical analysis was conducted to assist in comparing departments on key issues. In addition, interviews were conducted with police officers and homeless individuals to gain further insight into their perceptions and experiences.

Findings

Policing issues with the homeless were examined by size of the department, municipality, and size of the population served. Law enforcement agencies of all sizes and jurisdictions encountered homeless individuals. Large municipal agencies had the most frequent contact, and provided the most services. However, these departments did not have significantly more training or information provided to officers regarding the homeless. The narratives from the interviews revealed a level of frustration and feelings of being burdened from officers, and a sense of being harassed and targeted from the homeless.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was only conducted with 100 departments as a pilot study, and the interviews were only conducted in one city. Future research would extend the survey to more departments and gather more information from officers and homeless individuals.

Originality/value

Results from the present work advance our understanding of the relatively under‐studied relations and social dynamics between law enforcement and the homeless – providing both a qualitative and quantitative assessment. There are several policy recommendations for law enforcement administrators and organizations that assist the homeless.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools…

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3356

Abstract

Purpose

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of protective measures, policies, and school/neighborhood characteristics on school violence.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study were part of the School Survey on Crime and Safety collected in 2006. The dependent measures of school violence include reports of violence, threatened attack with a weapon, attack with weapon, and gun possession. The sample was divided into high schools and all other grades to consider differences in levels of school violence among grade levels in relation to various law enforcement security measures, school security measures, and school characteristics.

Findings

Findings revealed mixed and often counterproductive results for law enforcement and school security efforts to control school violence. School characteristics, such as reports of bullying, location, and gang activity yielded numerous statistically significant findings. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.

Originality/value

This study differs from much of the previous literature, which typically examines student and administrator attitudes about victimization and crime prevention. The current study examines detailed information on the actual effects of school violence prevention efforts. Furthermore, this study moves beyond most other works (that typically focus on high schools) as it considers school safety approaches by different grade levels.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-639-8

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Michael A. Katovich and Ronald Burns

This paper describes the home run as a dramatic offensive accomplishment in baseball linked to the five dramaturgical dimensions (act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose…

Abstract

This paper describes the home run as a dramatic offensive accomplishment in baseball linked to the five dramaturgical dimensions (act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose) defined by Burke. Such an accomplishment also pertains to two types of social pasts – categorical and crystallized – that can serve as correlates to the five dramaturgical dimensions. Owing to its dramaturgical and temporal significance, the home run symbolizes a celebrated sign of prowess that contributes to a home run hitter's or slugger's rarified status. Further, as a dramaturgical moment, the home run calls forth specified responses (especially on the part of announcers) that contribute to its distinctive meaning in the game.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-931-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Ronald Burns, Patrick Kinkade and Matthew C. Leone

To identify and assess the current state of professionalism and operations in the field of bail recovery, or bounty hunting.

Abstract

Purpose

To identify and assess the current state of professionalism and operations in the field of bail recovery, or bounty hunting.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method approach, which integrated information from interviews with bond agents with information taken from a survey of workers in the bond field.

Findings

Survey respondents averaged 51 years of age, and were mostly Caucasian males. Most were religious and conservative, and over 25 percent reported having obtained a four‐year college degree. Roughly one‐third of all survey respondents reported experience in law enforcement; nearly half indicated having specialized skills in weaponry. Money was the most cited reason for becoming a bail enforcement agent, and most respondents believed that bail enforcement agents are an under‐appreciated component of the criminal justice system.

Research limitations/implications

These findings were taken from a small number of survey respondents. Consequently, these data are not assumed to be representative of the population surveyed. Additionally, the interviews with key individuals in the field are also not assumed to be representative.

Practical implications

This research has shown that bond agents are not yet professionalized, but a substantial number of them desire greater professionalism in their field, and believe that more professional behavior is necessary to receive greater respect from their fellow criminal justice practitioners.

Originality/value

Very little is known about the operations and attitudes of bond agents. This research has added some critical information to this knowledge base, and has helped to raise other questions which may stimulate further research in this under‐examined field.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Abstract

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-639-8

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Abstract

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-931-9

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Abstract

Details

Corporate Fraud Exposed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-418-8

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Book part
Publication date: 3 March 2016

Olga Epitropaki and Charalampos Mainemelis

In the present chapter, we present the case study of the only woman film director who has ever won an Academy Award for Best Director, Kathryn Bigelow. We analyzed 43…

Abstract

In the present chapter, we present the case study of the only woman film director who has ever won an Academy Award for Best Director, Kathryn Bigelow. We analyzed 43 written interviews of Kathryn Bigelow that have appeared in the popular press in the period 1988–2013 and outlined eight main themes emerging regarding her exercise of leadership in the cinematic context. We utilize three theoretical frameworks: (a) paradoxical leadership theory (Lewis, Andriopoulos, & Smith, 2014; Smith & Lewis, 2012); (b) ambidextrous leadership theory (Rosing, Frese, & Bausch, 2011), and (c) role congruity theory (Eagley & Karau, 2002) and show how Bigelow, as a woman artist/leader working in a complex organizational system that emphasizes radical innovation, exercised paradoxical and ambidextrous leadership and challenged existing conventions about genre, gender, and leadership. The case study implications for teaching and practice are discussed.

Details

Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-942-8

Keywords

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