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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Niels Ketelhöhn, Roberto Artavia, Ronald Arce and Victor Umaña

This paper is a historical account of the process by which Michael Porter and INCAE Business School put together a regional competitiveness strategy for Central America…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a historical account of the process by which Michael Porter and INCAE Business School put together a regional competitiveness strategy for Central America that was officially adopted by the governments of five participating countries, and implemented through a series of Presidential Summits that occurred between 1995 and 1999. The paper provides a unique case study on the adoption of the concepts put forth by Porter in his book “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” (1990) at the highest level of government. The study arrives at a series of practical implications for policy makers that are particularly relevant for the implementation of supra-national regional strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an extensive literature review of 190 policy papers produced by INCAE Business School, that are used to recreate the historical evolution of the regional competitiveness strategy. The effect of Porter’s intervention is also assessed by comparing the main economic indicators of each participating country with those of 2005-2010. One of the authors was the main protagonist in the successful implementation of the strategy, and the paper relies partially on his accounts of events.

Findings

This study describes how economic policy in Central America was profoundly influenced by Michael Porter’s thinking in the second half of the 1990s. These policy changes promoted international competition of Central American clusters and firms, and opened the region for international investment and tourism. The region experienced important increases in its economic integration, its international trade, foreign direct investment and tourist arrivals. Gross domestic product growth was accelerated in Honduras and Nicaragua.

Research limitations/implications

Like all case studies, this study has limits related to the generalizability of its conclusions. Additionally, it is not possible to determine the precise nature of the relation between the implementation of the regional economic strategy, and the impact on economic growth, integration, FDI attraction and exports.

Practical implications

The paper has several practical implications that relate to the design of regional economic strategies. First, it identifies policy areas that are more effective as part of regional strategies, and distinguishes them from those that should be resolved at the national level. Second, it suggests a process that can facilitate execution. Finally, it provides an example of the coordinating role that can be assumed by an academic institution such as INCAE.

Originality/value

The Central American Competitiveness Initiative provides a unique setting to study the implementation of competitiveness policy for several reasons. First, in all countries in Central America, Michael Porter’s diamond framework (1990) and cluster theory were officially adopted at the highest level of government. Second, in addition to their individual competitiveness strategies, all countries adopted a regional strategy for cooperation and economic integration. Finally, the Central American Competitiveness Initiative was founded on one of the first competitiveness think tanks of the world.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2021

María-Alejandra Leiva-Martinez, María de las Mercedes Anderson-Seminario, Aldo Alvarez-Risco, Alfredo Estrada-Merino and Sabina Mlodzianowska

The following chapter aims to investigate the impact on the prices of inferior goods from COVID-19, a global pandemic with a spread never before seen, and in order to…

Abstract

The following chapter aims to investigate the impact on the prices of inferior goods from COVID-19, a global pandemic with a spread never before seen, and in order to stipulate the possible consequences, a contrast was made with past world crises in order to speculate the state in which the country and its citizens would be economically benefited. The chapter has been based on articles previously carried out by specialists, said essays, likewise, that have been contrasted by different authors; therefore, it could be stipulated that the methodology used throughout the trial was the one applied, since it was based on prior knowledge from great scholars on the subject. The results found indicate that, even though the country is in an uncertain outlook, the possibilities of economic recovery are high since previous economic crises denote large drops in money fluctuation with a high rate of recovery.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-091-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Geeta Marmat

The purpose of this paper is to understand business students' intention to behave ethically in general, and in particularly in the business context of a developing country, India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand business students' intention to behave ethically in general, and in particularly in the business context of a developing country, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper surveyed 250 final semester MBA students from different business schools in Indore city of Madhya Pradesh in India. The study employed the most popular behavioural theory, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to understand the intention of business students to behave ethically. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse direct effects of the constructs on behavioural intention, and the overall model.

Findings

Findings revealed that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control are positively related and have strong influence on ethical behavioural intention of business students. All constructs together explain 67 percent variance in intention. Attitude alone contributes 46 percent in explaining variance in ethical behavioural intention.

Research limitations/implications

Business ethics field can benefit from this study as it provides an empirical explanation of the contribution of each factor that is, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, in ethical behavioural intention of business students. This is directly beneficial for business schools and for education policymakers as the information can help policymakers to understand the potential of existing business ethics education. This study is limited to a data set of 250 business students in the context of a single country which cannot be generalized. So, there is need for research of this type in a more collaborative international context.

Originality/value

To the best of my knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian context to predict the intention of business students to behave ethically, using the TPB model. This study contributes valuable knowledge to the domain of business ethics, behavioural studies as well the field of business education, and suggests to explore ways to strengthen the three constructs attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, as these constructs were found to have a strong influence in forming ethical behavioural intention of business students of business schools in India.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Carlos Riojas and Angélica Basulto

This chapter's objective is to analyze, with a long-term perspective, the formation of an entrepreneurial culture in Mexico's Midwest, specifically in the state of…

Abstract

This chapter's objective is to analyze, with a long-term perspective, the formation of an entrepreneurial culture in Mexico's Midwest, specifically in the state of Jalisco, in terms of the geographical environment, the culture in general, and the local economic institutions that, when viewed interconnectedly, will globally impact the practices, representations, and imaginaries of persons who at a given time have made the decision to undertake profitable economic activities – individual and collective entrepreneurs, in other words. To this end, we have divided the text into two sections. In the first, we conceptually review what we understand as entrepreneurial culture; in principle, we deconstruct its terms and then conjugate them from a social science perspective. We also emphasize the importance of studying the milieu as a scenario of action with different arenas, where a variety of agents have been involved. In the second part, without sidelining conceptual analysis, we present concrete empirical evidence of the role played by culture and local economic institutions that shape entrepreneurial culture in Midwestern Mexico over time, specifically in Jalisco. The text ends with some final considerations.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Ron Whitaker

The Spook Who Sat by the Door is a cult-classic early-70s film, based on the 1969 novel by Sam Greenlee. The film deals with issues of inauthentic diversity initiatives…

Abstract

The Spook Who Sat by the Door is a cult-classic early-70s film, based on the 1969 novel by Sam Greenlee. The film deals with issues of inauthentic diversity initiatives, tokenism, and Black Nationalism. In the same manner, this chapter uses themes from the film and novel to disclose how the author navigates pseudo diversity initiatives within higher education and his experiences of being viewed as an exemplar Black male (token) by colleagues, while simultaneously remaining committed to his explicit research focus pertaining to exemplar practices and programming for Black boys and men. Theoretically, the author intersects tenets of Critical Race Theory into his essay (Delgado & Stefancic, 1993, 1994; Tate, 1997). While the author does not advocate for physical violence (as depicted in the film), he is using the training received in academia to declare war on the pernicious educational system that continues to intentionally mis-educate (Woodson, 1933), Black boys and men.

Details

The Beauty and the Burden of Being a Black Professor
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-267-6

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