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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09576059210016261. When citing…

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09576059210016261. When citing the article, please cite: Ron Garland, (1992), “Pricing Errors in the Supermarket: Who Pays?”, Logistics Information Management, Vol. 5 Iss: 3, pp. 29 - 34.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Jan Charbonneau and Ron Garland

Matching celebrity athletes with potential endorsement opportunities is often difficult. Yet there are easy-touse survey-based methods available. Based on a survey of the…

Abstract

Matching celebrity athletes with potential endorsement opportunities is often difficult. Yet there are easy-touse survey-based methods available. Based on a survey of the general public in New Zealand, this study uses both Ohanian's source-credibility scale and a constant-sum scale to help brand managers, player agents and advertising practitioners select good celebrity athlete-product fit. Four New Zealand athletes (two males and two females) and several products were included in the test. Results show that the female celebrity athletes outperformed their male counterparts as potential endorsers. Use of Ohanian's multi-attribute scale yields a level of richness and insight, prompting us to advocate the use of both scales in the pursuit of endorser-product congruences.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2010

Jan Charbonneau and Ron Garland

The purpose of this paper is to investigate reverse image transfer as it applies to both celebrities (actors/models) and celebrity athletes in a New Zealand context. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate reverse image transfer as it applies to both celebrities (actors/models) and celebrity athletes in a New Zealand context. It extends the work of Garland and Charbonneau which examined reverse image transfer (product image transferring to endorser) as it applied to celebrity athlete endorsers alone.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study are collected from 240 New Zealand university undergraduate students who are split equally into eight treatment groups. Using Ohanian's source‐credibility scale, each group rate several celebrities or celebrity athletes on their suitability for endorsing two contrasting products: orange juice (representing a positively perceived product) and cigarettes (representing a negatively perceived product). ANOVA (analysis of variance) is used to compare means between celebrities/celebrity athletes and the products they endorse. The study is a close replication of Till's work in the USA.

Findings

The results show a pronounced polarising effect for celebrity athletes, as opposed to celebrities (actors/models), for the endorsement of both products but particularly for cigarettes, the negative product. The potential for reverse image transfer is real, demanding careful attention by celebrities, agents and marketers during evaluation of endorsement opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Though not compromising the research integrity, the sample of New Zealand students is restrictive. Further extension of the research is advisable to address limitations based on sample composition, cultural setting and time of research.

Originality/value

Aside from addressing the paucity of research on reverse image transfer, this paper signals important managerial implications for celebrity endorsers and their agents.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Jan Charbonneau and Ron Garland

Substantial literature exists researching effective celebrity endorser characteristics, and a growing body of literature investigates the specifics of professional athlete…

Abstract

Substantial literature exists researching effective celebrity endorser characteristics, and a growing body of literature investigates the specifics of professional athlete endorsements. However, there has been little focus on selection from the advertising practitioner's perspective; research that does exist is limited to the United States and British markets. This research among New Zealand advertising agencies found that celebrities/athletes are used primarily to achieve' cut through' and that their use is generally thought to be effective provided there is a tight fit between celebrity/athlete, brand and message. Interestingly, for New Zealand practitioners, the risk of negative publicity and hiring costs were the most important factors in the endorsement decision.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Art Thomas and Ron Garland

“Scripted behaviour” underpins many repetitive and routine tasks, such as grocery shopping, where it is observed that some shoppers take a list and others do not. The…

Abstract

“Scripted behaviour” underpins many repetitive and routine tasks, such as grocery shopping, where it is observed that some shoppers take a list and others do not. The notion of “scripts” is used to examine the underlying reasons for the presence and absence of grocery shopping lists on major weekly or two‐weekly shopping trips to supermarkets. Little if any current information exists in marketing literature to fully explain the reasons for the presence or absence of lists, though it is known that such behaviour affects purchase activity in supermarkets. Set in New Zealand, this exploratory and preliminary study examines the shopping list being a moderator of purchase behaviour. It confirms previous research into the differences between list and non‐list grocery shoppers and suggests that far more planning occurs amongst all grocery shoppers than might be expected. The study reveals that some grocery shoppers, regardless of the presence or absence of a written shopping list, have a flexible approach to grocery shopping that is part of their overall shopping script. It is suggested that supermarket retailing planners could act on this intelligence in such a way as to support shoppers' pre‐planning, and thereby protect or increase their share of custom.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Ron Garland

Electronic scanning check‐out systems now operate in most NewZealand supermarkets, and three‐quarters of all grocery products boughtby New Zealand households are optically…

Abstract

Electronic scanning check‐out systems now operate in most New Zealand supermarkets, and three‐quarters of all grocery products bought by New Zealand households are optically scanned. With the introduction of optical scanning technology at point‐of‐sale comes the debate on price accuracy. Based on a sample of 18.129 products bought in 86 New Zealand supermarkets, the level of pricing errors and the monetary value of pricing errors are examined. Previous research in the USA has suggested that consumers suspect pricing errors may disadvantage them rather than the retailer. However, the monetary consequences of price inaccuracy resulted in a net average undercharge to the consumer of 31 cents in every NZ$100 spent; half of this net average undercharge resulted from uncharged goods, that is, goods free to the consumer. Price inaccuracy in the New Zealand supermarket industry is disadvantaging the supermarket retailer. Extrapolation of the results of this research shows that this industry could be losing nearly NZ$18 million per annum from pricing errors. Recommends detection of pricing errors and greater emphasis on staff training and supervision for check‐out operators and for those responsible for price changes.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Art Thomas and Ron Garland

The presence of a written shopping list on a major grocery buyingtrip to the supermarket is tangible evidence of out‐of‐store planning bythe shopper. This pre‐planning may…

Abstract

The presence of a written shopping list on a major grocery buying trip to the supermarket is tangible evidence of out‐of‐store planning by the shopper. This pre‐planning may influence both time spent in store and grocery expenditure, two factors of importance to supermarket retailers. Set in a New Zealand city, examines the extent to which a written grocery shopping list affects these two factors by comparing the behaviour of two matched samples, one with lists and one without. The findings are conclusive: written shopping lists significantly reduce average expenditure; the presence of children accompanying the shopper significantly increases expenditure and time spent in store. While supermarket retailers cannot dissuade customers from bringing a written shopping list to the store, they can encourage customers to spend more time in‐store, and to shop with someone else, thereby increasing average expenditure.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Ron Garland

Using Juster’s probability scale, this study examines a sample of 881 customers’ self‐reported estimates of probable defection from their main bank. One year later these…

Abstract

Using Juster’s probability scale, this study examines a sample of 881 customers’ self‐reported estimates of probable defection from their main bank. One year later these customers’ statuses with their main bank were reviewed, allowing comparison of intended with actual defection. This methodology allows not only investigation of the Juster scale’s performance in a “subscription” type market but also identification of those customers with a predisposition to switch banks. Bank management can then decide if and how they might address their switch‐prone customers. Respondents were asked to allocate their probability of closing all accounts at their main bank in the next 12 months. The sample estimate was 10 percent while the actual defection result was 5 percent. While this may seem somewhat inaccurate, similar studies in the literature report the tendency of the Juster scale to over‐estimate switching behaviour, but its estimates have consistently proved superior previously to those derived from attitudinally based intention‐to‐buy scales and at least the equal of the Conversion Model.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

John Fernie

Reviews an article that attempts to assess the scale of pricingerrors in supermarkets due to faulty scanning, research revealing a 4.29per cent error rate.

Abstract

Reviews an article that attempts to assess the scale of pricing errors in supermarkets due to faulty scanning, research revealing a 4.29 per cent error rate.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Ron Garland, Roger Brooksbank and Wayne Werder

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which strategic marketing planning is carried out by Australasian golf clubs and the impact such planning has upon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which strategic marketing planning is carried out by Australasian golf clubs and the impact such planning has upon their business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A research methodology borrowed from the “for profit” sector is applied. In total, ten basic strategic marketing practices, each with its own hypothesis, are investigated through a web‐based survey of secretaries/managers of 180 Australian and New Zealand golf clubs.

Findings

Analysis shows that while strategic marketing is being adopted by most clubs, compared with their lower‐performing counterparts (on measures of competitive business performance), the higher‐performing clubs place a far greater emphasis upon each of the ten basic strategic marketing practices.

Research limitations/implications

While the survey had a 24 per cent response rate, a small follow‐up survey of non‐respondents showed no significant difference in answers to four crucial questions. Self‐reported, relative performance measures, widely used in the “for profit” sector, have been utilised. The ten basic strategic marketing practices are assumed to be antecedents of success rather than a consequence of such success.

Originality/value

In addition to providing initial understanding of the extent of strategic marketing planning practice in a sport management context in Australasia, this paper identifies those practices which differentiate higher competitive business performance from lower performance.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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