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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Daniel J. Svyantek, Kevin T. Mahoney and Linda L. Brown

This paper takes the stance that there are two criteria for evaluation of diversity in organizations. These criteria are (a) competition with other organizations and (b…

Abstract

This paper takes the stance that there are two criteria for evaluation of diversity in organizations. These criteria are (a) competition with other organizations and (b) the maintenance of the organization across time. Organizations which seek diversity without considering its effects on competitive and maintenance goals place themselves at a disadvantage vis‐a‐vis their competitors. Two case examples, the Persian and Roman Empires, are used to show how different diversity management practices affect organizations. Differences between the two empires are related to the degree to which they allowed for inclusion of diverse cultural groups. The Persian Empire was exclusionary. The Roman Empire was inclusionary. Roman inclusionary practices were based on merit. Inclusion by merit is shown to lead to increased organizational effectiveness primarily in terms of increased organizational resiliency across time.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Yuko Minowa and Terrence H. Witkowski

This study seeks to further understanding of spectator consumption practices by applying modern consumer theory in a much different historical context: the gladiator games…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to further understanding of spectator consumption practices by applying modern consumer theory in a much different historical context: the gladiator games during the time of the Roman Empire. The objective is to validate modern ideas of consumption practices with evidence from the past.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws from a sampling of classical and contemporary literatures as well as the interpretation of the images and inscriptions delineated on archaeological artifacts such as relief sculptures on sarcophagi, floor mosaics, fresco paintings, and terracotta and glass lamps. The visual content and consumption themes of selected objects are described and analyzed.

Findings

Spectators at the Roman games used these events for the sake of the experience, for integrating themselves into their community, for classifying themselves in a certain group category, and for interacting and socializing with other people. As in modern sporting events, consuming the Roman games served both instrumental and autotelic purposes for spectators. The games were directly an object of consumption as well as the focal resource of interpersonal communications.

Research limitations/implications

The set of visual data sources is small and the literary evidence is in translation of the original sources.

Originality/value

The research shows that Holt's typology of sports consumer practices is supported by evidence from a much different time and context. Thus, the theory provides a robust framework for analysing consumer practices and rituals.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Maiko Kimura

The purpose of this paper is to propose a modification of the Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) model to accommodate names in non-Roman languages with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a modification of the Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) model to accommodate names in non-Roman languages with diverse writing systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The model modifies and clarifies the attributes and relationships regarding non-Roman languages of the current FRAD model, based on the definitions of transliteration, transcription, and Romanization in ISO 5127:2001. The modified model overcomes the problems inherent in the current FRAD model when handling writing systems in non-Roman languages.

Findings

The proposed model clearly shows the hierarchy of Controlled Access Points (CAPs). CAPs are either based directly on names or derived from other CAPs. For name or person identification, a CAP and its derivations should be treated as a set. The proposed model also resolves ambiguity in the definition of the word transliteration in the current FRAD model.

Originality/value

By establishing new relationships and amending the attributes of the FRAD model, the proposed model better expresses personal names in non-Roman languages as well as names in western languages. It also organizes complex writing systems of non-Roman languages. The proposed model could lead to an improved format for authority data and will facilitate international sharing of data.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Daniel J. Svyantek

The Roman Empire illustrates how change occurs in complex social systems. An analysis of: the effects of transformational leadership and transactional leadership styles in…

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Abstract

The Roman Empire illustrates how change occurs in complex social systems. An analysis of: the effects of transformational leadership and transactional leadership styles in complex social systems; and the relationship between leadership style and the social context is conducted. Julius Caesar is shown to have failed to create a new method of governing Rome. Augustus Caesar, however, created the basis for the Roman Empire. Their careers show that change which is incremental and does not violate the core culture of a system is more likely to transform a social system than more radical, transformational methods.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Anthony Galluzzo

The purpose of this paper is to study how several brands like Poulain, Liebig and Guérin have helped to disseminate the French roman national through their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how several brands like Poulain, Liebig and Guérin have helped to disseminate the French roman national through their chromolithographs at the beginning of the 20th century. By doing so, the paper highlights the participation of brands in the co-construction of the French roman national, a historical narrative that articulates state-supported collective memories.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,106 historical trade cards have been collected and analyzed. Historical studies of the roman national have been used as secondary sources to aid in the interpretation of the motifs conveyed in those chromolithographs.

Findings

Chromolithographic images produced by various brands at the beginning of the 20th century contributed to the roman national. They provide an ethnocentric, patriotic and linear view of history but are also crossed by political fault lines, opposing secular and Catholic visions of history.

Originality/value

The chromolithographs produced and disseminated by companies have so far only been analyzed as promotional tools, aimed at popularizing brands and stores. By studying roman national motifs, this paper helps us understand what role businesses have played in building other narratives and forging a national spirit.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2014

Matthew M. Mars

Instances of innovation are not always limited to a single point in time. In some cases, innovations can be repurposed over time to address multiple issues and/or solve…

Abstract

Instances of innovation are not always limited to a single point in time. In some cases, innovations can be repurposed over time to address multiple issues and/or solve multiple problems. The functionality of particularly influential innovations can extend over time, settings, and conditions, in which case a legacy is established. In the current chapter, the concepts of repurposing and legacy are discussed using as a primary example the Greco-Roman arch.

Details

A Cross-Disciplinary Primer on the Meaning and Principles of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-993-6

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Robert Prus

Although it is often assumed that the study of human group life as “something in the making” is a product of the more distinctive emphasis of 20th century American…

Abstract

Although it is often assumed that the study of human group life as “something in the making” is a product of the more distinctive emphasis of 20th century American pragmatist scholarship, the roots of the analysis of the social construction of activity run much deeper.

Whereas poetics (i.e., fiction) represents only one arena in which earlier scholars have more explicitly addressed the matters of human knowing and acting, Horace, Longinus, and Plutarch, three authors from the classical Roman era (c. 200 BCE-500 CE) contribute notably to an understanding of the ways in which people accomplish activity. While Horace and Longinus focus primarily on the production of poetic texts, Plutarch addresses the matter of reading, comprehending, and utilizing fictional materials within instructional contexts.

The texts of Horace, Longinus, and Plutarch are generally valued for the insight that they cast on the Roman and Greek life-worlds in the classical Roman era, but they also assume considerable importance as detailed reference materials for developing a more informed, comparative (i.e., transhistorical) analysis of the study of human knowing and acting in contemporary contexts.

Because of the particular subject matter they address, their extended levels of involvements in the communication process and their detailed analysis of people's roles as authors, instructors, and readers, Horace, Longinus, and Plutarch provide much valuable insight in the production and use of written texts. Moreover, given their associated attentiveness to the matters of authenticity and misrepresentation, persuasion and intrigue, and interpretation and inference, these statements should have considerable value to a wide range of scholars and educators.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-931-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Jagroop Kaur and Jaswinder Singh

Normalization is an important step in all the natural language processing applications that are handling social media text. The text from social media poses a different…

Abstract

Purpose

Normalization is an important step in all the natural language processing applications that are handling social media text. The text from social media poses a different kind of problems that are not present in regular text. Recently, a considerable amount of work has been done in this direction, but mostly in the English language. People who do not speak English code mixed the text with their native language and posted text on social media using the Roman script. This kind of text further aggravates the problem of normalizing. This paper aims to discuss the concept of normalization with respect to code-mixed social media text, and a model has been proposed to normalize such text.

Design/methodology/approach

The system is divided into two phases – candidate generation and most probable sentence selection. Candidate generation task is treated as machine translation task where the Roman text is treated as source language and Gurmukhi text is treated as the target language. Character-based translation system has been proposed to generate candidate tokens. Once candidates are generated, the second phase uses the beam search method for selecting the most probable sentence based on hidden Markov model.

Findings

Character error rate (CER) and bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score are reported. The proposed system has been compared with Akhar software and RB\_R2G system, which are also capable of transliterating Roman text to Gurmukhi. The performance of the system outperforms Akhar software. The CER and BLEU scores are 0.268121 and 0.6807939, respectively, for ill-formed text.

Research limitations/implications

It was observed that the system produces dialectical variations of a word or the word with minor errors like diacritic missing. Spell checker can improve the output of the system by correcting these minor errors. Extensive experimentation is needed for optimizing language identifier, which will further help in improving the output. The language model also seeks further exploration. Inclusion of wider context, particularly from social media text, is an important area that deserves further investigation.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this study are: (1) development of parallel dataset containing Roman and Gurmukhi text; (2) development of dataset annotated with language tag; (3) development of the normalizing system, which is first of its kind and proposes translation based solution for normalizing noisy social media text from Roman to Gurmukhi. It can be extended for any pair of scripts. (4) The proposed system can be used for better analysis of social media text. Theoretically, our study helps in better understanding of text normalization in social media context and opens the doors for further research in multilingual social media text normalization.

Originality/value

Existing research work focus on normalizing monolingual text. This study contributes towards the development of a normalization system for multilingual text.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Armen E. Petrosyan

This paper aims to expose the nature, pattern and mechanism of Roman private enterprise as the rudimentary form of capitalistic business. In the second part, it is shown…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expose the nature, pattern and mechanism of Roman private enterprise as the rudimentary form of capitalistic business. In the second part, it is shown why and how the directorship of slaves in private enterprise appeared and what shape it took.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of historical analysis and theoretical reconstruction, the author reveals the pattern and mechanism of business through slaves as the primordial form of private enterprise.

Findings

A comprehensive view of public and private entrepreneurship at the end of Republic and the beginning of Empire is presented. The origin and advantages of Roman public enterprise acknowledged by the state are brought to light. The way the benefits the corporate status affords were adjusted to a business framework allowed by law is demonstrated. It is just business through slaves that, combining peculium with free administration, secured limited liability for owners and turned the slaves to whom a business was entrusted into a kind of director. This construction enabled masters to become the proprietor of many formally separate enterprises at once, thereby expanding their business into something like a holding.

Research limitations/implications

The results obtained allow historians to retrace the origins of modern private enterprise to classical antiquity, and economists and managers to better understand the nature of private enterprise and organizational status of those owning and managing it.

Practical implications

Leaders and executives can draw from the paper an object lesson of how to make, within the existing political system, legal regulation and economic traditions, a radical innovation whose true meaning and social potential are so immense and far-reaching that show up in full measure evident many centuries later. The findings and conclusions the author comes to may be used in educational courses on economics, entrepreneurship, management, business history and so on.

Social implications

The paper provides an instructive model of conciliation of interests (social “compromise”). “Directors” – those organizing and managing a business but not owning it – were held subject to proprietors but within legally regulated relations with them. The state created incentives for initiative and competent businessmen in subjection to well-offs, to work hard, on one hand, and made their masters to use these incentives to public and their own profits. The benefits of all parties were taken into account, though, of course, not to the same degree.

Originality/value

The structure and “engine” of Roman private enterprise as well as the functions and organizational status of its “director” are demonstrated in relief for the first time.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Armen E. Petrosyan

The purpose of this paper is to expose the pattern and mechanism of Roman private enterprise as the rudimentary form of capitalistic business.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expose the pattern and mechanism of Roman private enterprise as the rudimentary form of capitalistic business.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of historical analysis and theoretical reconstruction, the author retraces the background and foundations of business through slave as the initial stage of private enterprise.

Findings

A comprehensive view of public and private entrepreneurship at the end of Republic and the beginning of Empire is presented. The riddle of “unnaturally” dear slaves in Rome (as compared with free labor and slaves in other countries of antiquity) is scrutinized. It is shown that “excessively” high demand for them was largely determined by their institutional worth: thanks to dominica potestas, they appeared to be the key organizational resource for expanding private industrial business. The framework of private enterprise securing limited liability for owner and turning “business slave” into a kind of director is brought to light.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this research allow historians to retrace the origins of modern private enterprise to classical antiquity, while economists and managers get an opportunity to better understand its nature and organizational status of those owning and managing it.

Practical implications

Leaders and executives can draw from the paper an object lesson of how, remaining within the existing political system, legal regulation and economic traditions, to make a radical innovation whose true meaning and social potential are so immense and far-reaching that get evident only many centuries later. The findings and conclusions the author comes to may be used in educational courses on economics, entrepreneurship, management, business history and so on.

Social implications

An instructive model of conciliation of interests is scrutinized. “Directors” – those organizing and managing a business but not owning it – were, as well as workers, recruited by coercion and legal regimentation of their relations with proprietors. The polarization of their institutional roles was at the bottom of private enterprise from the very outset. The state created incentives for initiative and competent business men in subjection to well-offs to work hard, on one hand, and made their masters to use these incentives to public and their own profits. The benefits of all parties were taken into account, though, of course, not to the same degree. Thereby, a kind of social compromise embodied in a novel institution was attained to.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to demonstrate in relief the background and framework of Roman private enterprise as well as the functions and organizational status of its “director.”

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

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