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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Zhiying Jiang, Chong Guan and Ivo L. de Haaij

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the benefits of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity for embedded online video advertising. A conceptual model is constructed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the benefits of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity for embedded online video advertising. A conceptual model is constructed to test how congruity between online advertisements, advertised products and online videos impact consumer post-viewing attitudes via processing fluency.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment with eight versions of mock video sections (with embedded online video advertisements) was conducted. The study is a 2 (type of appeal: informational vs emotional) × 2 (Ad-Video congruity: congruent vs incongruent) × 2 (Product-Video congruity: congruent vs incongruent) full-factorial between-subject design. A total of 252 valid responses were collected for data analysis.

Findings

Results show that congruity is related to the improvement of processing fluency only for informational ads/videos. The positive effect of Ad-Video congruity on processing fluency is only significant for informational appeals but not emotional appeal. Similarly, the positive effects of Product-Video congruity on processing fluency are only significant for informational appeals but not emotional appeal. Involvement has been found to be positively related to processing fluency too. Processing fluency has a positive impact on the attitudes toward the ads, advertised products and videos.

Research limitations/implications

The finding that congruity is related to the improvement of processing fluency only for informational ads/videos extends the existing literature by identifying the type of appeal as a boundary condition.

Practical implications

Both brand managers and online video platform owners should monitor and operationalize the content and appeal congruity, especially for informational ads on a large scale to improve consumers’ responses.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to examine the effects of Ad-Video and Product-Video congruity of embedded advertisements on video sharing platforms. The findings of this study add to the literature on congruity and processing fluency.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Xiaoling Zhang

This study aimed to verify the impact of consumers' self-congruity on brand loyalty behavior when stock-out happens; the role of the psychological reactance theory as a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to verify the impact of consumers' self-congruity on brand loyalty behavior when stock-out happens; the role of the psychological reactance theory as a mediator was assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey. Data from 417 respondents were analyzed, and structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings revealed the positive significant impact of consumers' self-congruity on their brand loyalty behavior, and the mediating effect of psychological reactance between self-congruity and consumers' brand loyalty behavior.

Practical implications

This study offers retailers/brand owners a deeper understanding of the remedy strategy needed to reduce the sales loss in their firms when stock-out happens.

Originality/value

This study provides a theoretical and empirical test on the influence of consumers' self-congruity on their brand loyalty behavior, bringing consumers' psychological reactance into the research as a mediating factor, thereby enriching the existing research on consumers' out-of-stock reactions.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Angela C. Henderson, Heidi Grappendorf and Laura J. Burton

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of attractiveness on perceptions of female athletes' potential success in managerial positions using role

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of attractiveness on perceptions of female athletes' potential success in managerial positions using role congruity as the theoretical framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a simulated employment evaluation, participants (n=68 male, n=121 female) were asked to evaluate the résumé of either an attractive female athlete or an unattractive female athlete for an entry‐level management position in a sport organization. Participants evaluated the athlete on hiring recommendations, competence, and anticipated liking for the applicant.

Findings

Analysis of the data indicated that attractive‐looking athletes had a significant advantage over unattractive‐looking athletes on all dependent measures. Athletes perceived to be unattractive were more harshly evaluated for entry‐level managerial positions.

Research limitations/implications

The unattractive‐looking female athletes in this study may have been perceived as having both the masculine characteristics of athlete in addition to appearing to be less feminine. This combination of the masculine role of athlete, heightened by a less‐feminine appearance (i.e. unattractive‐looking), may have negatively impacted the unattractive‐looking female athletes in this study, providing further support that when women demonstrate characteristics considered to violate appropriate gender roles, they will be punished for such violations. These findings are a potential addition to role congruity theory in that backlash was occurring as a result of violating two roles; being both athletic and less attractive.

Originality/value

This study was the first to explore if the influence of perceived attractiveness on hiring preferences for female athletes applying for management positions was similar to the influence of attractiveness as reported in research that has examined this influence for women in social and managerial settings. The results of the current study indicated female athletes that are perceived as unattractive must walk the tightrope of being masculine, but not too masculine.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Corinne Post, Nancy DiTomaso, Sarah R. Lowe, George F. Farris and Rene Cordero

This paper aims to evaluate alternative theories about how perceived innovativeness and perceived relational skills interact with gender to explain evaluations by managers…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate alternative theories about how perceived innovativeness and perceived relational skills interact with gender to explain evaluations by managers of scientists and engineers' promotability into management.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional design is used. The sample (n=2,278) is drawn from 24 large US corporations. Separate surveys are administered in each corporation to scientists and engineers and to managers evaluating them.

Findings

Managers rate men and women equally promotable. Furthermore, women whom managers perceived to be especially innovative receive higher evaluations of promotability than similarly accomplished men. And, among those perceived to have low relational skills, women and men are evaluated similarly.

Research limitations/implications

More research is needed to evaluate how ambivalent stereotypes and pressures from organizations to suppress categorical thinking might combine to affect evaluation and selection processes in diverse work settings.

Practical implications

Companies should be concerned about the potential tendency for managers to reward a few individuals when they exceed stereotypical expectations. Employees should be aware of and actively manage the impressions that managers have of them with regard to innovativeness and relational skills.

Originality/value

This paper calls attention to the role of ambivalence and legitimacy theories that predict that women will receive higher evaluations when they exceed stereotypical expectations of innovativeness and that when women do not meet stereotypical expectations of relational skills, managers will temper their harshness in evaluating them. In developing this analysis, it seeks to contribute to the understanding of evaluation processes by considering the context in which evaluations take place.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Jurika Groenewald and Elza Odendaal

Considering the benefits that gender diversity could bring to audit firms, especially in a time when the audit profession faces criticism and the COVID-19 pandemic has…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the benefits that gender diversity could bring to audit firms, especially in a time when the audit profession faces criticism and the COVID-19 pandemic has widened the gender inequality gap, this study aims to explore the lived experiences of female former audit managers from a social role theory and role congruity theory perspective, to understand the factors that contributed towards their resignations.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory qualitative research approach and an interpretative phenomenological analysis design were used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior female audit managers who had resigned from Johannesburg Stock Exchange-accredited audit firms.

Findings

The female former audit managers reported their unique experiences in terms of a lack of transparent career progression discussions, audit firms being run by “old boys’ clubs” and unfair treatment linked to bias, job overload and indistinct ambitions to become audit partners.

Research limitations/implications

The homogeneous sample included a small number of female participants from a limited number of audit firms.

Originality/value

The findings could inform audit firms how to address the factors contributing to female audit managers’ resignations and to challenge stereotypes to retain more women for promotion to audit partner-level, thereby capitalising on the benefits of a diversified management structure that could lead to higher quality audits and address gender inequality.

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Abstract

Details

Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2018

Shimei Yan, Yike Wu and Gang Zhang

There are mainly two viewpoints on women’s leadership effectiveness compared with that of men – the questioning view and the admiring view, two points of view that are not…

Abstract

Purpose

There are mainly two viewpoints on women’s leadership effectiveness compared with that of men – the questioning view and the admiring view, two points of view that are not in agreement. Based on that, this study aims to find the gender difference in leadership effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses carefully matched male and female presidents (223 pairs) of Chinese listed companies and male and female chief executive officers (141 pairs) of American listed companies as samples. Analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the indicator data of the leadership effectiveness.

Findings

The findings show that women’s leadership effectiveness is not significantly inferior to that of men, and that women’s leadership effectiveness compared to that of men in the Chinese cultural context is not inferior to that in the American cultural context. The findings do not support the questioning view of women’s leadership effectiveness.

Originality/value

This study first uses the carefully matched (female/male leaders) data of Chinese listed companies and American listed companies as samples to find which viewpoint (the questioning view and the admiring view) is supported or is not supported.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Christopher R. Reutzel and Carrie A. Belsito

– The purpose of this study is to explore how initial public offering (IPO) investors view female presence on boards of directors in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how initial public offering (IPO) investors view female presence on boards of directors in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes hierarchical regression and analyzes data collected from firms undertaking their IPO’s in the USA during 1997 and 2007.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that US IPO investors react negatively to female presence on the board of directors. However, this negative effect has weakened post-Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study may not generalize to other settings.

Practical implications

Gender bias against females in the boardroom exists but appears to be weaker post-Sarbanes-Oxley.

Social implications

One hurdle to greater female representation in entrepreneurial ventures in the USA may be weakening as a result of greater awareness of female director contributions to board functioning.

Originality/value

First, the study represents one of the few attempts to examine the influence of female directors on organizational outcomes in IPO firms. Second, this study represents one of the first studies to consider the influence of director gender on IPO performance. Finally, this study extends extant research by examining investor reactions to female board presence. The results of this study suggest that bias against females in the boardroom may exist but appears to be weakening post-Sarbanes-Oxley. This finding indicates increasing awareness of female director contributions to board functioning on the part of IPO investors.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Maria Eugenia Ruiz-Molina, Miguel-Ángel Gómez-Borja and Alejandro Mollá-Descals

One key issue to be addressed in multichannel retailing strategies has to do with ensuring the consistency of the retailer offerings between the brick-and-mortar and the…

Abstract

Purpose

One key issue to be addressed in multichannel retailing strategies has to do with ensuring the consistency of the retailer offerings between the brick-and-mortar and the online stores to offer their customers a seamless experience. This study assesses whether perceived congruence may be relevant to identify segments of heterogeneous based on their online loyalty levels as well as other constructs and variables related to the customer relationship with the retailer for two different product categories.

Design/methodology/approach

From the responses of apparel and electronics multichannel shoppers to an online survey, a CHAID algorithm was performed to identify the most relevant congruence attribute(s) perceived by customers for predicting their loyalty levels toward the online store.

Findings

The results have allowed the identification of five segments of online shoppers, both for apparel and for electronics retailing, so that customers showing the highest scores in all congruence attributes also showed a higher loyalty toward the online store.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a first insight into the link between perceived congruence and online loyalty in retailing using a CHAID segmentation-based approach by differentiating various dimensions of perceived congruence for two product categories.

Practical implications

The results obtained allow for inferring a series of strategies and actions that retailers can adopt for improving perceived congruence between physical and online stores along with a series of dimensions, and ultimately, increase online loyalty.

Originality/value

As the interest of the literature on perceived congruence between offline and online stores is relatively recent, this exploratory research contributes to shedding light on the implications of specific congruence dimensions between the offline and the online store in terms of consumer online loyalty in all multicategory setting.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Leanne Dzubinski, Amy Diehl and Michelle Taylor

This paper aims to present a model describing how women enact executive leadership, taking into account gendered organizational patterns that may constrain women to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a model describing how women enact executive leadership, taking into account gendered organizational patterns that may constrain women to perform leadership in context-specific ways.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses gendered organizations, role congruity theory and organizational culture and work context. These strands of theory are interwoven to construct a model describing ways in which executive-level women are constrained to self-monitor based on context.

Findings

The pressure on women to conform to an organization’s executive leadership culture is enormous. Executive women in strongly male-normed executive leadership contexts must exercise strong gendered self-constraint to break through the glass ceiling. Women in strongly male-normed contexts using lessened gendered self-constraint may encounter a glass cliff. Women in gender-diverse-normed contexts may still operate using strong gendered self-constraint due to internalized gender scripts. Only in gender-diverse-normed contexts with lessened gendered-self-restraint can executive women operate from their authentic selves.

Practical implications

Organizational leaders should examine their leadership culture to determine levels of pressure on women to act with gendered self-constraint and to work toward creating change. Women may use the model to make strategic choices regarding whether or how much to self-monitor based on their career aspirations and life goals.

Originality/value

Little has been written on male-normed and gender-diverse-normed contexts as a marker for how executive-level women perform leadership. This paper offers a model describing how different contexts constrain women to behave in specific, gendered ways.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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