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Many governments wishing to provide telecommunication services to those who are unconnected have chosen the Universal Service Fund (USF) as the principal policy…
Many governments wishing to provide telecommunication services to those who are unconnected have chosen the Universal Service Fund (USF) as the principal policy instrument. However, there is evidence that monies directly or indirectly collected from users of telecommunication services are lying unspent in these funds. The purpose of this paper is to propose metrics for measuring the disbursement efficacy of funds across time and across countries as an essential element of improving the performance of the universal service funds.
This paper proposes two metrics, the total disbursement rate (TDR) and the year-on-year disbursement rate (YDR), which can be used to assess the disbursement efficacy of universal service programs. It illustrates the value of the metrics by applying them to the USFs of India, Malaysia and Pakistan.
A move to push out funds has been observed in India in recent years. Pakistan had not reached the same momentum up to mid-2014. An improvement in Malaysia’s disbursement efficacy was observed until 2013, with nearly all of the funds collected in the previous year being disbursed. A significant proportion of the funds collected are lying unspent in the three USFs, nevertheless.
The proposed metrics are robust, objective and parsimonious indicators that allow comparison over time and across countries. They will enable productive, evidence-based conversations that will hold fund administrators accountable and will inform the design and implementation of more effective policy mechanisms.
This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other…
This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions. Both options involve substantive as well as procedural issues, not necessarily separable. The conditions that may affect the creation of convergence and multi‐sector regulation, ranging from underlying commonality of inputs and the behaviour of regulated firms to considerations that are specific to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi‐sector regulation issues are primarily about establishing the efficiency and effectiveness of regulation, so it can be a catalyst for network and economic development. They arise from an initial diagnosis of different problems, and represent different priorities and pathways to achieving a very similar set of development objectives.
There are significant shortcomings in the current method of estimating the indicator “Proportion of internet users” by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in…
There are significant shortcomings in the current method of estimating the indicator “Proportion of internet users” by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in countries where demand-side data are unavailable. In the absence of demand-side surveys, governments calculate the proportion of internet users on the basis of the number of subscriptions and a multiplier, which leads to arbitrary values. Errors in such base indicators ripple through the system, causing significant errors in composite indicators, and should be minimised. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new evidence-based methodology, in the absence of demand-side surveys, to estimate the proportion of individuals using the internet.
This study found the drivers of internet use to be income and education. A regression analysis was conducted between internet users per 100 in countries that employed demand-side surveys and a new index based on the income and education components of the Human Development Index (HDI).
The regression analysis showed a strong correlation between the proportion of internet users in a country and the new income and education index. Using these data, a new methodology was developed that creates incentives for governments to conduct demand-side surveys and reduce the errors yielded by the previous methodology.
It is proposed that this evidence-based estimation method be used by the ITU in the absence of demand-side surveys, instead of arbitrary multipliers applied to estimated subscription numbers provided by governments. If governments believe that their national circumstances justify higher numbers, they can conduct demand-side surveys.
This paper explores the possibility of using the readily available HDI data to define a new index that will provide a more accurate estimate of the proportion of individuals using the internet.
Discusses telecommunication regulatory agencies, which have multiplied worldwide. Proclaims the new regulators can win effective independence and position themselves as…
Discusses telecommunication regulatory agencies, which have multiplied worldwide. Proclaims the new regulators can win effective independence and position themselves as exemplars of good governance. Sums up that good regulatory design is never fully completed, in the same way that a computer system’s firewall is never completed.
Over 50 percent of the disasters occur in Asia and in the past five year disasters in the region have killed around half million people. Most of these deaths could have…
Over 50 percent of the disasters occur in Asia and in the past five year disasters in the region have killed around half million people. Most of these deaths could have been prevented if reliable and effective early warning systems were in place. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of the emerging mobile technology for disaster risk reduction.
LIRNEasia field tested five wireless technologies, including mobile phones, in 32 tsunami affected villages in Sri Lanka; where members in the village were provided training with emergency response planning and given one or more of the technologies for receiving hazard information. Further lessons were learned by sharing knowledge, through a consultation process, on early warning systems with stakeholders in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
The evaluation process concluded mobile phones as the reliable, effective, and affordable solutions for alerting last‐mile communities. Disaster risk reduction can be improved using mobile application and leverage the explosive diffusion of the technology even among the poor in developing countries.
Coordination within government, including communication to first responders responsible for evacuation and localized warnings, and communication to mass media who serve a critical function in public warning, can be achieved through the use of an SMS engine supplemented as necessary by an informative and robust website. Cell broadcasting can serve as an extremely useful addition to the conventional public warning methods, especially in countries with significant mobile penetration.
The paper is intended for governments, researchers and practitioners working in the field of emergency communication.
Recognizes significant constraints that the UK’s international obligations as a member of the International Telecommunications Union and the European Conference of Post…
Recognizes significant constraints that the UK’s international obligations as a member of the International Telecommunications Union and the European Conference of Post and Telecommunications Administrations impose. States there is also a trade‐off between internationally mandated allocations, which give certainty to equipment manufacturers and states spectrum is an important input into the production of a wide range of services – from mobile telephony to national defence.