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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Muhammad Asif Khan, Rohail Ashraf and Thamer Ahmad S. Baazeem

State funding is being reduced for higher education institutes (HEIs) is linked to several checks such as performance-based incentives (Hagood, 2019). This forces HEIs to…

Abstract

Purpose

State funding is being reduced for higher education institutes (HEIs) is linked to several checks such as performance-based incentives (Hagood, 2019). This forces HEIs to look for other options for funding. Endowment funds are now becoming the main source of revenue for HEIs (Sörlin, 2007), largely provided by alumni. Thus, this study aims to examine the factors that lead to donor behavior in terms of university endowment funds.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 627 participants in the survey from public universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and 625 from public/private universities of the United States of America (USA), the authors conducted a cross-sectional survey-based analysis. Hypotheses were tested with regression analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that in the USA, donors with substantial prestige within the institution are more likely to contribute to the endowment fund; however, in the KSA, this relationship was insignificant. Additionally, this study found that participation, brand interpretation and satisfaction positively impact identification with an organization, leading to donor behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This research has successfully identified psychological factors for endowment funding; however, mediating or moderating variables affecting donor behavior should also be considered. Further, this study considers only two countries, the KSA and the USA; therefore, a larger cross-cultural context warrants more investigation.

Practical implications

Overall results revealed several means through which the administrators and practitioners may efficiently manage and increase university endowment funds flow. This study's novelty is to conduct a cross-national investigation and identify the psychological factors of donation behavior toward university endowment funds, providing an opportunity for HEIs to understand the psychological factors in detail and motivate their alumni to be one of the important sources of funding even in developing countries.

Originality/value

Many psychological factors underlie alumni's engagement in volunteerism and donation activities, especially in cross-national settings. Following social identity theory, this study explored identity-based donor behavior in terms of supporting universities through endowment funding.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Muhammad Asif Khan, Rohail Ashraf and Aneela Malik

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of identity-based consumer perceptions on the brand avoidance of foreign brands across multiple markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of identity-based consumer perceptions on the brand avoidance of foreign brands across multiple markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Focussing on general product category brands, the study was conducted across two countries, i.e. New Zealand (Study 1) and Pakistan (Study 2), using online surveys. Study 1 explores the perceptions of university students, whereas Study 2 evaluates the perceptions of a more heterogeneous population across the country. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling was used to analyse the model.

Findings

First, the results confirm that individual-level identity-based drivers (undesired self-congruence and negative social influence) consistently predict brand avoidance for foreign brands across both markets, whereas country-level drivers (consumer ethnocentrism and animosity) have inconsistent effects across the markets. Second, the study demonstrates that avoidance attitude fully mediates the relationship between antecedences and intentions to avoid foreign brands.

Practical implications

The finding that undesired self-congruence is the strongest predictor of brand avoidance across the markets reinforces the importance of brand image congruence with the target audience. Considering the negative effect of social influence, especially on social media (i.e. Facebook and Twitter), this finding cautions managers to constantly monitor the prevailing negative word of mouth (online or offline) about the brand to mitigate its potential effect.

Originality/value

Drawing on social identity theory, this study explores the identity-based pre-purchase determinants of brand avoidance at the country level and at the individual level. These determinants have never been explored yet in the context of brand avoidance.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Rohail Ashraf, Noel Albert, Dwight Merunka and Muhammad Asif Khan

Increasing consumer skepticism of corporate behavior has led companies to actively manage and advertise their corporate brands. However, it remains unclear how receptive…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing consumer skepticism of corporate behavior has led companies to actively manage and advertise their corporate brands. However, it remains unclear how receptive consumers across different markets are to such efforts. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate differences and similarities between corporate and product advertising by examining consumer ad involvement (AI) levels (a motivational state activated by the personal relevance of stimuli) and its antecedents and consequences for these ad types across two markets with varying degrees of economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a 2 (ad type: corporate vs product) × 2 (market type: developed vs emerging) between-subject experimental design, the study was conducted in two markets with varying degrees of economic development, specifically, the USA (n=285) and Pakistan (n=311).

Findings

Results show that consumer involvement with corporate ads varies for developed (USA: high) and emerging (Pakistan: low) markets but that it remains the same for product ads across markets. Developed market consumers tend to be as involved with corporate ads as they are with product ads, whereas emerging market consumers are more involved with product ads than with corporate ads. Aside from differences in involvement levels, the findings demonstrate substantial similarities in the antecedents and consequences of consumer involvement for both ad (corporate vs product) and market (developed vs emerging) types.

Practical implications

With advertising and communication campaigns increasingly being standardized across different markets, this study demonstrates that corporate messages do not function similar as product messages across markets. For effective corporate campaigns, ad designs should fit with the motivation levels of the target consumers across markets.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the differences and similarities between corporate and product AI across a developed and an emerging market.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Rohail Ashraf and Dwight Merunka

Customer‐company identification (CCI) refers to a social relationship between a company and its customers. Prior research highlights the positive consequences of CCI but…

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Abstract

Purpose

Customer‐company identification (CCI) refers to a social relationship between a company and its customers. Prior research highlights the positive consequences of CCI but does not study the process by which CCI shapes both positive and negative consumer reactions to new company initiatives. This study aims to elaborate this process by modelling the mediating consequences of CCI (commitment to the company and feeling of belonging to an in‐group) on consumers’ responses to brand extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 291 respondents, spanning two companies and four brand extension scenarios. The model parameters were estimated through partial least squares path modelling.

Findings

CCI leads to commitment to the company and to a related group, through identification processes. Both forms of commitment influence consumer reactions to new corporate initiatives. The effect of company commitment is stable; in‐group commitment is more influential in forming consumer responses but varies depending on the severity of the situation.

Originality/value

This research elaborates the mechanisms of identity‐based commitment and its effect on consumer responses to new company initiatives. The two‐tiered, identification‐based commitment model highlights how identified customers relate to both the company and in‐groups of consumers, as a result of CCI. It explains both positive and negative consumer reactions, an insight missing from prior studies.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Muhammad Aqeel and Tasnim Rehna

The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and association among school refusal behavior, self-esteem, parental school involvement and aggression in punctual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and association among school refusal behavior, self-esteem, parental school involvement and aggression in punctual and truant school-going adolescents.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sampling technique and cross-sectional design were used in the current study. Participants comprised three heterogeneous sub-groups: school truant students, park truant students and punctual students.

Findings

This study’s findings indicated that father and mother’s school involvement was related to more elevated level of self-esteem for school truant students. Results also indicated that male truant students had more significant probability to school refusal behavior and physical aggression as compared to female truant students. Moreover, results revealed that physical aggression fully mediated among mother’s school involvement, academic self and school refusal behavior in punctual students and school truant students.

Originality/value

There is more need to develop indigenous school-based preventions and interventions aimed at decreasing school truancy in Pakistani context by tackling the predisposing vulnerable factors and supporting and encouraging the protective family and internal factors.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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