Describes the Northumberland Drug Education Project, a partnership between health and education, which uses local needs assessment and evaluation, and provides training and support for teachers to enhance existing drug education in middle schools. We have found that the children we work with (aged 9‐10) wish to be able to talk to their parents about drugs issues, but are unsure of the reaction they will receive. We have therefore given increasing attention to parents, who we believe are underused in drug education. We assess their needs and concerns, and arrange participative meetings in which we tell them about our active approach to working with their children, based on healthy choices. In addition, we give them information on drug issues and, most importantly, we work with them to consider ways in which parents can make a difference. Our sessions with parents are well liked. They result in parents having improved knowledge and confidence, and intentions to develop more open communication with their children. One of our main aims now is to involve more parents.
Reports on evaluation of a school‐based drug education programme delivered throughout a mixed rural and urban county in the North of England. Measurement approaches and…
Reports on evaluation of a school‐based drug education programme delivered throughout a mixed rural and urban county in the North of England. Measurement approaches and methods to encourage parents to participate are described. Building on recent research, and in keeping with current UK drug prevention policy, the programme aimed to provide pupils with information about drugs and training in life and resistance skills. The needs of teachers, pupils and parents were assessed, and training and support provided based on those needs. This phase of the project was conducted in ten schools and involved 633 children aged nine to ten years, 33 teachers and 320 parents. Needs assessment showed that parents and teachers lacked confidence, knowledge and skills in talking about drugs with young people. Following the intervention, teachers reported improvement in all these areas. Pupils showed more realism in their statements about coping with drug issues, and parents expressed more confidence in talking to their children about drugs after the intervention. New methods to improve attendance at parent evenings were well received. Evaluation and needs assessment methods need to be improved still further, and there is a need for more dismantling and process evaluations of multi‐component programmes to determine what works and why.
An interview‐based survey of evidence‐based practice (EBP) and the research, continuing professional development (CPD) and audit activity that support it was conducted in…
An interview‐based survey of evidence‐based practice (EBP) and the research, continuing professional development (CPD) and audit activity that support it was conducted in the North East of England amongst a representative sample of NHS clinical psychologists and counsellors (n = 30). It profiled their participation in EBP activities over the past year and their intentions for the next year. The findings suggest that the sample had used guidelines and protocols on 56 per cent of occasions, had on average drawn on research, CPD and audit approximately half of the time, but had been only minimally influenced by research, CPD or audit. It is concluded that EBP has occurred in all defined areas and that the conditions for an increased degree of EBP are promising.
English health authorities are required to inspect pharmaceutical practice in registered nursing homes within their area. The inspection process provides opportunities to…
English health authorities are required to inspect pharmaceutical practice in registered nursing homes within their area. The inspection process provides opportunities to improve as well as monitor practice. An exploratory study is reported in which the verbal and non‐verbal behaviour of pharmaceutical inspectors was recorded. Brief questionnaires explored the views of the staff inspected on the inspection process. Marked differences between inspectors were found, and these were associated with different views on the process on the part of the nurses under inspection. The observation process was acceptable to the inspectors, and feedback was able to convey information which could guide them towards a style of inspection likely to improve practice in the homes in relation to medicines. The inspection process in this setting (and more widely in health care) should seek to provide constructive feedback so that improvement becomes a routine feature of inspection.
Standards for assessing and managing suicide risk were developed and incorporated into a guidance manual for general practitioners. The effects of the manual on opinions…
Standards for assessing and managing suicide risk were developed and incorporated into a guidance manual for general practitioners. The effects of the manual on opinions and practice were evaluated using a quasi‐experimental controlled before/after design, comparing participating general practitioners with others who did not use the manual. Thirty four general practitioners participated over a six‐month period. The intervention group showed changes in perceptions, with increased satisfaction with their own methods and in their recognition and assessment of suicide risk. Their practice changed, with increased recording of relevant factors in notes. The comparison group did not change in these ways. It is concluded that general practitioners’ practice and opinions in assessing and managing suicide risk were significantly improved using a minimal intervention. Given the importance of the topic and the small size of this study, further research is needed, examining changes in professional practice, knowledge and attitudes.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between research and audit, and propose appropriate regulatory arrangements for audit and related activities.
The methods used were literature reviews and conceptual analysis.
Research and audit overlap in various ways, but differ in terms of their purposes and the risks likely to be encountered and distinguished, along with a third related category of activities called quality improvement.
Appropriate regulatory arrangements are proposed for audit and quality improvement activities. Using these should ensure appropriate ethical standards and risk management, while avoiding the time‐consuming over‐regulation that occurs when projects are unnecessarily submitted to the ethical scrutiny appropriate for research projects.
Gives suggestions and information that could be of great value in spreading service improvement.
This paper gives a picture of the development of four new roles in mental health over a two‐year period. It draws on data from the national mapping project to provide a…
This paper gives a picture of the development of four new roles in mental health over a two‐year period. It draws on data from the national mapping project to provide a unique perspective on the emergence of the roles of support, time and recovery workers, gateway workers, carer support workers and community development workers for black and minority ethnic communities. The tracking of such roles on a national level reveals a number of issues, in particular the need for clarity of terms if there is to be an undisputed understanding of what mental health services are provided and by whom.
The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical…
The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one catch‐all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed.
This paper reviews definitions and applications of bridging and bonding social capital, classifies empirical studies according to each network type, and produces a further breakdown according to methodological approach.
The result is a four‐part “grid” of social capital research, encompassing bonding and bridging, and quantitative and qualitative aspects. This paper finds that most qualitative research examines non‐excludable and excludable goods and is relevant to bonding social capital, whilst most quantitative analysis looks at civic networks and norms of trust, and relates to bridging social capital.
Results advance the task of clarifying and measuring social capital.
Further development of the bridging/bonding social capital conceptual pair should allow for a more precise measurement of a community, or region.
No review paper to date captures the above empirical and methodological “grid” clearly.