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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Roddy McKinnon and Roger Charlton

Contemporary debates over the future direction of retirement pensions policy have been dominated by a polemic over the scope of, and the future balance between, the…

Abstract

Contemporary debates over the future direction of retirement pensions policy have been dominated by a polemic over the scope of, and the future balance between, the respective roles of public and private sectors in the management and delivery of benefit “entitlements”. This debate has negatively judged the institutional capacity of the state sustainably to supply adequate national retirement provision. This development is viewed as problematic as it is contentious in that it seeks to abandon lessons learned from the long, albeit currently underestimated, historical pedigree of public‐private partnership in institutional pensions provision. Against the ascendancy of World Bank‐driven attitudes regarding the limitations of “public”’ pensions provision, it is argued that due recognition be given to the ongoing capacity of state sectors to contribute positively to the management and delivery of old‐age pensions. Argues further that the social welfare‐driven imperatives which led states initially to become increasingly more involved in national pensions provision remain no less salient today and for the future, and are particularly salient for developing economies with poorly developed private financial sectors.

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International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2012

Roger Koppl

Experts respond to the same incentives as people in other areas of human action, and in the same ways. This insight is a truism: Experts are ordinary people, not…

Abstract

Experts respond to the same incentives as people in other areas of human action, and in the same ways. This insight is a truism: Experts are ordinary people, not otherworld creatures. The disciplined pursuit of this common sense observation helps us to reach conclusions about experts that might be surprising or counterintuitive.

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Experts and Epistemic Monopolies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-217-2

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2016

Jacob Dearmon and Tony E. Smith

Statistical methods of spatial analysis are often successful at either prediction or explanation, but not necessarily both. In a recent paper, Dearmon and Smith (2016…

Abstract

Statistical methods of spatial analysis are often successful at either prediction or explanation, but not necessarily both. In a recent paper, Dearmon and Smith (2016) showed that by combining Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) with Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), a modeling framework could be developed in which both needs are addressed. In particular, the smoothness properties of GPR together with the robustness of BMA allow local spatial analyses of individual variable effects that yield remarkably stable results. However, this GPR-BMA approach is not without its limitations. In particular, the standard (isotropic) covariance kernel of GPR treats all explanatory variables in a symmetric way that limits the analysis of their individual effects. Here we extend this approach by introducing a mixture of kernels (both isotropic and anisotropic) which allow different length scales for each variable. To do so in a computationally efficient manner, we also explore a number of Bayes-factor approximations that avoid the need for costly reversible-jump Monte Carlo methods.

To demonstrate the effectiveness of this Variable Length Scale (VLS) model in terms of both predictions and local marginal analyses, we employ selected simulations to compare VLS with Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), which is currently the most popular method for such spatial modeling. In addition, we employ the classical Boston Housing data to compare VLS not only with GWR but also with other well-known spatial regression models that have been applied to this same data. Our main results are to show that VLS not only compares favorably with spatial regression at the aggregate level but is also far more accurate than GWR at the local level.

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Spatial Econometrics: Qualitative and Limited Dependent Variables
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-986-2

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2008

Mark Cohen

In this paper, the author comments on the influence of political structures on public mental health. Using psychoanalytic theory and a Kleinian framework, the author…

Abstract

In this paper, the author comments on the influence of political structures on public mental health. Using psychoanalytic theory and a Kleinian framework, the author suggests that current political systems and culture can be inhibiting of mental development and health. The paper explores the concept of democracy as an ideal and the effects it has on public mental health. The paper raises the question of political restructuring as a means of promoting mental health and suggests that there is a role for further interdisciplinary work in this area.

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Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Roger Mackett

As people age they tend to do more local journeys, shown by a lower mean trip length, from around 50 years onward. One reason for this is increased difficulty with…

Abstract

As people age they tend to do more local journeys, shown by a lower mean trip length, from around 50 years onward. One reason for this is increased difficulty with mobility as people age; around one-third of those aged over 70 have mobility difficulties. Physiological changes in later life that have consequences for travel include deterioration of hearing and seeing, decreased skeletal muscles and reduced mobility of joints. Another reason for the decrease seen in many western countries is retirement from work, with many fewer trips made for commuting purposes. However, there are increases in shopping, personal business and leisure trips when commuting is reduced. That said, older people would still like to make more discretionary journeys in later life, especially to visit family and friends more often. A review of literature suggests how important mobility is for wellbeing through social interaction and being involved in activities outside the home.

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Transport, Travel and Later Life
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-624-2

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2012

E. James Cowan

This chapter examines whether the view of the jury in cases involving forensic evidence can be changed from that of “naïve automatons” to that of “sophisticated decision…

Abstract

This chapter examines whether the view of the jury in cases involving forensic evidence can be changed from that of “naïve automatons” to that of “sophisticated decision makers”; whether the defense and prosecution must provide the jurors with information to help them develop a schema upon which to evaluate the forensic evidence; and whether to remove decision making from the expert forensic scientist and return it to the jury. The chapter uses secondary sources of information collected from criminal cases, the current federal law, as interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court dealing with expert testimony, studies of how to enable juries confronted with forensic evidence, as well as a framework of learning theory and persuasion games. I argue that expert forensic scientists make errors. Juries are capable of making decisions based on complex forensic evidence if provided the knowledge within which to develop schema to evaluate that evidence. Competition between the defense and prosecution in presenting interpretations of scientifically valid evidence, as well as providing schema to enable the jury to evaluate the information, provides juries with the ability to arrive at a full information decision. Expert nullification of jury decision making should be halted and decision making returned to the jury. The value of this chapter is to integrate learning theory from cognitive psychology with one-shot and extended persuasion games to evaluate the roles of the jury and the expert forensic scientists within the criminal justice system.

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Experts and Epistemic Monopolies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-217-2

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2017

Matt Bower

This chapter aims to establish a positive vision for the technology-enhanced learning design field. It commences by summarizing the current state of technology-enhanced…

Abstract

This chapter aims to establish a positive vision for the technology-enhanced learning design field. It commences by summarizing the current state of technology-enhanced learning research, as established by the previous analysis, in order to clarify the foundations upon which the field can build. The future of learning technology is considered, in the first instance, by extrapolating trends in information and communication technologies throughout history. This process showcases how the most impactful technologies are those that bring information closer to us, support sharing, and offer more visceral learning experiences. The nature of learning technology trends occurring in recent Horizon Reports, for instance, gesture-based computing, augmented reality, Massive Open Online Courses, and table computing, are analyzed and explained in terms of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Gartner’s Hype Cycle. This leads to identifying teachers as the critical lynch pin in order for society to derive greatest educational benefit from the exponential advances in technology. Consequently, support for educators is argued as essential. Into the future the learning technology field will only optimize its progress if educators and researchers work together to understand design issues and possibilities. Directions forward for educators and researchers are proposed, emphasizing a research-driven, pedagogically focused, creative, and collaborative approach to technology-enhanced learning design.

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Design of Technology-Enhanced Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-183-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1970

This is indeed the age of revolution, when timeless attitudes are changing and new ways of living being born. To most it is a bewildering complex, with uneasy forbodirtgs…

Abstract

This is indeed the age of revolution, when timeless attitudes are changing and new ways of living being born. To most it is a bewildering complex, with uneasy forbodirtgs of the outcome. Improvement and change, there must always be—although change is not necessarily progress—but with unrest in the schools, universities and industry, one naturally questions if this is the right time for such sweeping reorganization as now seems certain to take place in local government and in the structure of the national health service. These services have so far escaped the destructive influences working havoc in other spheres. Area health boards to administer all branches of the national health service, including those which the National Health Service Act, 1946 allowed local health authorities to retain, were recommended by the Porritt Committee a number of years ago, when it reviewed the working of the service.

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British Food Journal, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Stuart Hannabuss

The management of children′s literature is a search for value andsuitability. Effective policies in library and educational work arebased firmly on knowledge of materials…

Abstract

The management of children′s literature is a search for value and suitability. Effective policies in library and educational work are based firmly on knowledge of materials, and on the bibliographical and critical frame within which the materials appear and might best be selected. Boundaries, like those between quality and popular books, and between children′s and adult materials, present important challenges for selection, and implicit in this process are professional acumen and judgement. Yet also there are attitudes and systems of values, which can powerfully influence selection on grounds of morality and good taste. To guard against undue subjectivity, the knowledge frame should acknowledge the relevance of social and experiential context for all reading materials, how readers think as well as how they read, and what explicit and implicit agendas the authors have. The good professional takes all these factors on board.

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Library Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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