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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

David G. Allen earned his Ph.D. from the Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations at Georgia State University. He is an assistant professor of Management in…

Abstract

David G. Allen earned his Ph.D. from the Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations at Georgia State University. He is an assistant professor of Management in the Fogelman College of Business and Economics at the University of Memphis. His current research interests include the flow of people into and out of organizations, and technology implications for human resource management.Michelle M. Arthur is an assistant professor in the Anderson Schools of Management at the University of New Mexico. She received her Ph.D. in Labor and Industrial Relations from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research focuses on diversity supporting human resource practices and firm-level outcomes.Murray R. Barrick is the Stanley M. Howe Leadership Chair at the Henry B. Tippie College of Business at the University of Iowa. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Akron in Industrial-Organizational Psychology. He was recognized with the “Outstanding Published Paper Award” in 1992 by the Scholarly Achievement Award Committee of the Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management, and in 2001, was the recipient of the Owens Scholarly Achievement Award from the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In addition, in 1997, he was elected a fellow of SIOP. He also serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and has served on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Management.Ronald M. Bearden received his MS in Quantitative Psychology from the University of Wisconsin. He is currently a Personnel Research Psychologist with the Navy Personnel Research, Studies, & Technology (NPRST) Department, working in the area of selection and classification. He is the principal investigator for the Navy’s efforts to develop a mulitifaceted non-cognitive assessment battery that will be utilized for identifying Navy personnel likely to perform well in the recruiting environment. He has over twenty years of experience working in the area of large-scale Navy selection and classification research programs.Walter C. Borman received his Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of California (Berkeley). He is currently CEO of Personnel Decisions Research Institutes and is a professor of Industrial-Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida. He is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 1994–1995 served as President of the Society. Borman has written more than three hundred books, book chapters, journal articles, and conference papers. He recently co-edited the I/O volume of the Handbook of Psychology (Borman, Ilgen & Klimoski, 2003), and, with two PDRI colleagues, wrote the personnel selection chapter for the 1997 Annual Review of Psychology. He also has served on the editorial boards of several journals in the I/O field, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Performance, and the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Dr. Borman’s areas of interest are performance measurement, personnel selection, job analysis, and assessment centers.Kenneth G. Brown is an assistant professor and Huneke Faculty Research Fellow at the Henry B. Tippie College of Business at the University of Iowa. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from Michigan State University. Ken does research and consulting in the areas of technology-delivered training and knowledge transfer. For work in this area, Ken received the 2002 American Society of Training and Development and the 2003 Society of Human Resource Management Research Awards. He currently serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Management.Alison Cook is a doctoral candidate in Organizational Behavior at Purdue University. Her primary research interests include individual-level and firm-level outcomes of the work-family interface. Her other interests include organizational justice, gender, and diversity research.Brian R. Dineen received his Ph.D. in Human Resource Management/Organizational Behavior from the Max M. Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University in 2003. Prior to his time in graduate school, he served four years as a Division Officer in the U.S. Navy. He is currently an assistant professor of Management in the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky. His primary areas of interest include Internet-based recruitment and selection and the impact of team fluidity on team processes and outcomes. His work has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Public Personnel Management, and Journal of Management (forthcoming), and he has presented at national conferences such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the Academy of Management.William L. Farmer received his Ph.D. in Quantitative Psychology (with sub-specialization in Industrial-Organizational) from the University of Oklahoma. He is currently a Personnel Research Psychologist with the Navy Personnel Research, Studies, & Technology (NPRST) Department, working in the area of selection and classification. He is the program manager/principal investigator for the Navy’s efforts to develop a mulitifaceted non-cognitive assessment battery that will be utilized to improve the quality of enlisted selection and classification. He has over ten years of experience working in the area of large-scale employee selection programs.Kerri L. Ferstl earned her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from the University of Minnesota. She is a senior research associate in the Minneapolis office of Personnel Decisions Research Institutes. She has worked with many public and private sector clients designing and implementing customized human resource tools for use in selection, development, promotion, and performance appraisal. Her work has appeared in Personnel Psychology and the Journal of Vocational Behavior.Rodger W. Griffeth earned his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina. He is the Freeport-McMoran Chair of Human Resource Management at the University of New Orleans. His primary research interest is investigating employee turnover processes.Jerry W. Hedge earned his doctorate in I/O Psychology in 1982 from Old Dominion University. He has been involved in personnel research for more than 25 years. He has worked with both public and private sector clients designing, implementing, and evaluating numerous tools, systems, and techniques. He has extensive experience in job analysis and competency modeling; performance measurement; selection system development and validation; training program design, development and evaluation; and attitude assessment. Dr. Hedge is currently an independent consultant; during his career he has been employed by both public and private organizations, most recently serving as President and COO for Personnel Decisions Research Institute. Over the years, Dr. Hedge has stayed actively involved in conducting applied research, publishing his research in books and journals, and presenting regularly at professional conferences. He is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the American Psychological Association.Jennifer D. Kaufman earned her master’s and Ph.D. degrees in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from Tulane University. She has worked with law enforcement, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Army while employed as a Research Scientist with Personnel Decisions Research Institutes. As a Customer Leader now with DeCotiis Erhard Inc., Dr. Kaufman continues to partner with customers to develop selection and performance management systems. Dr. Kaufman received her Master’s degree and Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from Tulane University. Throughout her academic career, Dr. Kaufman has received academic awards, honors and fellowships, and was chosen for a two-year appointment as the Industrial/Organizational Psychology representative for the American Psychological Association’s Science Student Council which reports directly to the Board of Scientific Affairs. In addition, Dr. Kaufman’s research has been published in academic journals and books. Her research has also been presented at numerous national conferences such as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Academy of Management, and the Interdisciplinary Conference on Occupational Stress and Health.Timothy A. Judge is the Matherly-McKethan Eminent Scholar in Management at the University of Florida. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Tim’s research interests are in the areas of personality and individual differences, leadership and influence behaviors, internal and external staffing, and job attitudes. He is a SIOP and American Psychological Association Fellow. In 1995, Tim received the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 2001, he received the Larry L. Cummings Award for mid-career contributions from the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. Tim currently sits on 6 editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.Todd J. Maurer received his Ph.D. in industrial-organizational psychology from the University of Akron. He was employed at Georgia Institute of Technology and will join the faculty of Georgia State University in Fall 2003 as Professor of Management. In 2002 he won the Sidney A. Fine Award for Research on Analytic Strategies to Study Jobs from the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) and was elected to Fellow of SIOP in 2003. He has consulted or conducted applied research on issues including aging workers, employee testing and selection, learning and development, performance appraisal, job analysis, and legal concerns. Some of the research he has conducted has been supported by private organizations, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and SIOP. He has served on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology and Journal of Management.Raymond A. Noe is the Robert and Anne Hoyt Designated Professor of Management in the Department of Management and Human Resources at The Ohio State University. He received his BS in Psychology from The Ohio State University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Psychology from Michigan State University. Professor Noe’s teaching and research interests are in Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, and Training and Development. He has published articles on training motivation, employee development, work and non-work issues, mentoring and team processes in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Personnel Psychology. Professor Noe is currently on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Business and Psychology. Professor Noe has authored three textbooks, Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, and Employee Training and Development, all published with Irwin McGraw-Hill. He has received awards for his teaching and research excellence, including the Herbert G. Heneman Distinguished Teaching Award, the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contribution and election as a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the American Society for Training & Development Research Award in 2001.Robert W. Renn holds a doctorate in Business Administration from Georgia State University’s College of Business Administration. He is an associate professor of Management in the Fogelman College of Business and Economics at the University of Memphis. His dissertation research focused on job design and his current research interests center on improving work motivation and work performance through self-regulation, goal setting, performance feedback, and work design.Christina E. Shalley is a professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management in the DuPree College of Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She received her Ph.D. in Business Administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include investigating the effects of various social and contextual factors on employees’ creativity and examining ways to structure jobs and the work environment to support creative and innovative work. She has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. She also serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Management.Kennon M. Sheldon is an associate professor of Social Psychology at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His primary research interests concern goals, motivation, psychological well-being, creativity, and the resolution of social dilemmas. He received a $30,000 Templeton Prize in 2002 for his contributions to the emerging field of “positive psychology.” Ken has published one book, Self-Determination Theory in the Clinic: Motivating Physical and Mental Health (Yale University Press, 2003), and has another book in press, Approaching Consilience: Exploring Optimal Human Being (Erlbaum Press, to appear in 2004).Bennett J. Tepper is a professor in and chair of the Department of Management in the Belk College of Business Administration at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He received his Ph.D. in Organizational Psychology from the University of Miami and served on the faculty of the University of Kentucky where he held Ashland Oil and Gatton Research Professorships. His research on organizational justice, leadership, and prosocial and antisocial organizational behavior has appeared in various outlets including the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.Daniel B. Turban is a professor of Management at the University of Missouri. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from the University of Houston. His current research interests include self-determination theory, recruitment processes and applicant attraction, and dyadic relationships in organizations. Dan has served on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology and Academy of Management Journal.Connie R. Wanberg is currently the Carlson Professor of Human Resources and Industrial Relations and an adjunct professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from Iowa State University in 1992. Her research has focused on issues such as unemployment, job-search behavior, career indecision, organizational change, employee socialization, and employee development, and has been funded by a variety of agencies including National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Labor, and the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation. She has consulted with a variety of government organizations and is on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology.Elizabeth M. Weiss received her Master’s degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2001 and is working on her Ph.D. Her research interests include employee learning and development and the role of technology in social science research. Her work on these and related topics has been published in Computers in Human Behavior and Behavior and Information Technology, and is soon to appear in Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Applied Social Psychology. She is currently working in the field of performance improvement and training development.Elizabeth T. Welsh is a Ph.D. student in Human Resources and Industrial Relations at the University of Minnesota. She also has a Masters in Business Administration from UCLA. Before returning to school, she was Vice-President of Human Resources for a software company. She has been a consultant and worked at companies including First Boston and Microsoft. Her research interests include employee development and staffing.Kimberly A. Wrenn earned her Master’s degree and is a Ph.D. candidate in Industrial-Organizational Psychology at Georgia Institute of Technology. She has published research in the areas of employee development and selection. She is employed at Management Psychology Group where she has conducted job/task analysis, test development, selection system development and validation, and 360-degree surveys.Kelly L. Zellars is an assistant professor of Management at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She received her bachelor’s and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Notre Dame, her M.S.T. from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and her Ph.D. in Business Administration from Florida State University. Dr. Zellars has focused her research interests in the areas of job stress and burnout, personality, and perceptions of fairness. She has published in journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology.Jing Zhou is an associate professor of Management and Mays Fellow in the Management Department at the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University. She received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include contextual factors that promote or inhibit employee creative performance. She has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Personnel Psychology. Currently, she serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Management. Beginning in fall 2003, she will join the Jones Graduate School of Management at Rice University as an associate professor of Management.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Nicole L. Gullekson, Rodger Griffeth, Jeffrey B. Vancouver, Christine T. Kovner and Debra Cohen

Human resource management (HRM) practices are implemented to improve outcomes, such as reducing turnover, absenteeism, and improving performance. Using social exchange…

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Abstract

Purpose

Human resource management (HRM) practices are implemented to improve outcomes, such as reducing turnover, absenteeism, and improving performance. Using social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to examine one HRM practice that has received less attention by researchers: employer-sponsored childcare assistance programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 – a field study compared three groups of hospital employees’ (n=148) attitudes and behaviors using MANCOVA/ANOVA over two time periods. Study 2 – using a field study, on-site and voucher childcare assistance programs were evaluated in terms of the cost to the organization and the relationship to attitudinal variables.

Findings

Study 1 – results indicated that employee performance was higher and absenteeism lower for employees using the on-site childcare center than employees using an off-site center or with no children. Although the attitudinal results did not align with hypotheses, they were not inconsistent with SET. Study 2 – results indicate that childcare assistance programs may be a beneficial HRM practice for organizations to implement.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of Study 1 is the small sample size. Future research should continue to examine how employee benefits like childcare programs affect employees, as well as examine how such benefits differentially employees who value and do not value the benefits. In Study 2, although the authors randomly selected the sample of on-site and voucher programs, the health care facilities self-selected themselves to participate in the program and selected the type of childcare program, a potential source of bias. Future research should examine childcare assistance programs and their impact on work-family balance and strain-based conflict in a wider variety of samples.

Practical implications

Implications for research and practice: Both studies offer researchers a “next step” in the evaluation of childcare assistance research. Additionally, these studies are of practical value to administrators/researchers in organizations who may be considering vouchers or on-site programs as they relate such programs to organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

The first study is one of the few studies on this topic to use a field design with two time points and with multiple behaviors and attitudes. The second study provides a descriptive comparison of two types of childcare assistance programs, a comparison made by few studies to date.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Julie T. Johnson, Rodger W. Griffeth and Mitch Griffin

Examines turnover functionality (high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers) in a business‐to‐business sales setting. Prior research indicates that antecedents of…

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Abstract

Examines turnover functionality (high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers) in a business‐to‐business sales setting. Prior research indicates that antecedents of turnover frequency and turnover functionality are different. However, this may be an artifact of the way in which turnover has been measured. This study develops a new criterion of turnover functionality. Additionally, common antecedents of turnover frequency were examined to see if they could differentiate between high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers. The results indicate that several antecedents associated with turnover frequency are able to discriminate among different groups of high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers. Specifically, satisfaction with promotion, supervision, work, and global satisfaction contribute to our understanding of turnover functionality. Additionally, role conflict, role ambiguity, anxiety, evaluation of job alternatives, and intention to quit are also good discriminators of turnover functionality.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

David G Allen, Robert W Renn and Rodger W Griffeth

As more companies and employees become involved in telecommuting, researchers and managers will need to understand the effects of this relatively new working arrangement…

Abstract

As more companies and employees become involved in telecommuting, researchers and managers will need to understand the effects of this relatively new working arrangement on the work perceptions and behaviors of the individual telecommuter. The extant empirical literature provides mixed results and is limited by a lack of theory; consequently, neither researchers nor managers can rely on this literature for clear direction on how telecommuting will likely affect individual telecommuters. There is a critical need for theoretical frameworks to guide research on how telecommuting may affect the telecommuter’s job perceptions, working relations, and work outcomes. We present a multi-dimensional framework of telecommuting design, and focus on how telecommuting design may affect the telecommuter’s work environment and outcomes through its effects on the social system of the telecommuter, autonomy and self-management opportunities and requirements, and role boundaries, particularly in terms of the work and non-work interface. Our goal is to provide a framework to assist managers and researchers in systematically addressing questions of how to design telecommuting arrangements to maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential drawbacks.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Mian Zhang, Rodger W. Griffeth and David D. Fried

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between two forms of work‐family conflict – work‐family conflict and family‐work conflict – and individual…

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4730

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between two forms of work‐family conflict – work‐family conflict and family‐work conflict – and individual consequences for Chinese managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants of this study were 264 managers from Mainland China. The authors tested their hypotheses with structural equation modeling.

Findings

Work‐family conflict was positively associated with emotional exhaustion. Family‐work conflict was negatively associated with life satisfaction and affective commitment, as well as positively related to turnover intentions. Contrary to the research with samples of workers from Western countries (e.g. the USA), the study found that work‐family conflict was positively associated with affective commitment and did not associate with turnover intentions for Chinese managers.

Originality/value

Using the perspective of the Chinese prioritizing work for family benefits, the authors are the first to provide a preliminary test of the generalizability of the source attribution and the cross‐domain models to Chinese managers. The paper's findings provide the preliminary evidence that the cross‐domain model works among the Chinese because of its cultural neutrality whereas the source attribution model cannot be used to predict the associations between work‐family conflict and work‐related consequences.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Bruno Cirillo, Daniel Tzabbar and Donghwi Seo

Research on employee mobility has proliferated in the past four decades across four research traditions: Economics, sociology, management, and organizational

Abstract

Research on employee mobility has proliferated in the past four decades across four research traditions: Economics, sociology, management, and organizational behavior/human resource management. Despite significant overlap in interest and focus, these four streams of research have evolved independent from each other, resulting in a structural divide. We provide a detailed account of the research on employee mobility and the structural divide across disciplines. We document that the payoff from this profusion of research and increasing interest has been disappointing, as reflected in the limited number of cross-disciplinary citations, even among common topics of interest. However, our analysis also provides some encouraging signs in the form of specific journals and individuals who provide a bridge for cross-disciplinary fertilization.

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Employee Inter- and Intra-Firm Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-550-5

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

Abstract

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

M. Ronald Buckley holds the JC Penney Company Chair of Business Leadership and is a professor of management and a professor of psychology in the Michael F. Price College…

Abstract

M. Ronald Buckley holds the JC Penney Company Chair of Business Leadership and is a professor of management and a professor of psychology in the Michael F. Price College of Business at the University of Oklahoma. He earned his Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from Auburn University. His research interests include, among others, work motivation, racial and gender issues in performance evaluation, business ethics, interview issues, and organizational socialization. His work has been published in journals such as the Academy of Management Review, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and the Journal of Management.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-126-9

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Chunjiang Yang, Qinhai Ma and Ling Hu

The purpose of this paper is first, to overview the current research situation on job embeddedness (JE), including the theoretical underpinning of JE, the definition and…

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2025

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is first, to overview the current research situation on job embeddedness (JE), including the theoretical underpinning of JE, the definition and dimensions of JE, its comparisons with similar constructs, and its global and composite measure; second, to intergrate the unfolding model, JE and image theory to better understand voluntary turnover – and indicate future research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature search covering several separate electronic databases, including ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Kluwer and Emerald, was conducted. Most of the articles can be acquired online from The University of California Riverside. The validity and reliability are compared between global and composite scales. The authors summarized and categorized the findings of current research.

Findings

JE can be differentiated from those similar constructs and measures already in the literature. Almost all of the studies on JE have found that it predicted voluntary turnover better than job attitudes and perceived ease of movement from traditional models of turnover. Along with extended research on it, JE was disaggregated into two major sub‐dimensions, namely, on‐the‐job and off‐the‐job embeddedness, and it has been extended to occupational and career level.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the authors use qualitative methods to evaluate the current studies on JE, only. Meta‐analysis, as a reviewing method, should be used in future research on clarifying the relationships between JE and other constructs in organizational behavior.

Originality/value

This research reviews almost all of the studies on JE from 2001 to 2009 and organizes and categorizes them into three kinds: cause, consequence and theoretical extension. The authors also summarize its relationships with other constructs (e.g. turnover, turnover intention, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior) in various settings. Finally, based on discussion, the authors indicate future research directions.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Linda C. Isenhour, Diana L. Stone and Donald Lien

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of advancing theory and research in China through identification of unique aspects of Chinese organizational…

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1421

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of advancing theory and research in China through identification of unique aspects of Chinese organizational behaviors, which can lead to expanded, robust organizational behavior and human resource management models and theories that transcend national boundaries.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper and does not employ research methods.

Findings

The results of studies included in this special issue suggest that researchers can identify elements unique to China in constructs such as psychological capital, work‐to‐family spillover, work‐family conflict, performance appraisal process, and expatriate interactions that further expand theory and research in organizational behavior.

Practical implications

The review of articles in the special issue suggests that managers in organizations in China may want to: develop individuals' psychological capital; train managers on the importance of eliminating abusive behaviors and developing employees' heartiness; adopt family friendly practices; employ performance appraisal process to encourage commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors; and train local country nationals on working with expatriates to enhance organizational effectiveness.

Originality/value

This review provides a unique perspective on employee behavior because it considers such behavior in a Chinese context.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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