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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Qi Jie Kwong, Jim Yexin Yang, Oliver Hoon Leh Ling, Rodger Edwards and Jamalunlaili Abdullah

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the thermal environment of two engineering testing centres cooled via different means using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the thermal environment of two engineering testing centres cooled via different means using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), focussing on the indoor temperature and air movement. This computational technique has been used in the analysis of thermal environment in buildings where the profiles of thermal comfort parameters, such as air temperature and velocity, are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot survey was conducted at two engineering testing centres – a passively cooled workshop and an air-conditioned laboratory. Electronic sensors were used in addition to building design documentation to collect the required information for the CFD model–based prediction of air temperature and velocity distribution patterns for the laboratory and workshop. In the models, both laboratory and workshop were presumed to be fully occupied. The predictions were then compared to empirical data that were obtained from field measurements. Operative temperature and predicted mean vote (PMV)–predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) indices were calculated in each case in order to predict thermal comfort levels.

Findings

The simulated results indicated that the mean air temperatures of 21.5°C and 32.4°C in the laboratory and workshop, respectively, were in excess of the recommended thermal comfort ranges specified in MS1525, a local energy efficiency guideline for non-residential buildings. However, air velocities above 0.3 m/s were predicted in the two testing facilities, which would be acceptable to most occupants. Based on the calculated PMV derived from the CFD predictions, the thermal sensation of users of the air-conditioned laboratory was predicted as −1.7 where a “slightly cool” thermal experience would prevail, but machinery operators in the workshop would find their thermal environment too warm with an overall sensation score of 2.4. A comparison of the simulated and empirical results showed that the air temperatures were in good agreement with a percentage of difference below 2%. However, the level of correlation was not replicated for the air velocity results, owing to uncertainties in the selected boundary conditions, which was due to limitations in the measuring instrumentation used.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the varying designs, the simulated results of this study are only applicable to laboratory and workshop facilities located in the tropics.

Practical implications

The results of this study will enable building services and air-conditioning engineers, especially those who are in charge of the air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system design and maintenance to have a better understanding of the thermal environment and comfort conditions in the testing facilities, leading to a more effective technical and managerial planning for an optimised thermal comfort management. The method of this work can be extended to the development of CFD models for other testing facilities in educational institutions.

Social implications

The findings of this work are particularly useful for both industry and academia as the indoor environment of real engineering testing facilities were simulated and analysed. Students and staff in the higher educational institutions would benefit from the improved thermal comfort conditions in these facilities.

Originality/value

For the time being, CFD studies have been carried out to evaluate thermal comfort conditions in various building spaces. However, the information of thermal comfort in the engineering testing centres, of particular those in the hot–humid region are scantily available. The outcomes of this simulation work showed the usefulness of CFD in assisting the management of such facilities not only in the design of efficient ACMV systems but also in enhancing indoor thermal comfort.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Kinjiro Amano, Eric C.W. Lou and Rodger Edwards

Building information modelling (BIM) is a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building. Its use offers a range of benefits in terms…

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modelling (BIM) is a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building. Its use offers a range of benefits in terms of achieving the efficient design, construction, operation and maintenance of buildings. Applying BIM at the outset of a new build project should be relatively easy. However, it is often problematic to apply BIM techniques to an existing building, for example, as part of a refurbishment project or as a tool supporting the facilities management strategy, because of inadequacies in the previous management of the dataset that characterises the facility in question. These inadequacies may include information on as built geometry and materials of construction. By the application of automated retrospective data gathering for use in BIM, such problems should be largely overcome and significant benefits in terms of efficiency gains and cost savings should be achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

Laser scanning can be used to collect geometrical and spatial information in the form of a 3D point cloud, and this technique is already used. However, as a point cloud representation does not contain any semantic information or geometrical context, such point cloud data must refer to external sources of data, such as building specification and construction materials, to be in used in BIM.

Findings

Hyperspectral imaging techniques can be applied to provide both spectral and spatial information of scenes as a set of high-resolution images. Integrating of a 3D point cloud into hyperspectral images would enable accurate identification and classification of surface materials and would also convert the 3D representation to BIM.

Originality/value

This integrated approach has been applied in other areas, for example, in crop management. The transfer of this approach to facilities management and construction would improve the efficiency and automation of the data transition from building pathology to BIM. In this study, the technological feasibility and advantages of the integration of laser scanning and hyperspectral imaging (the latter not having previously been used in the construction context in its own right) is discussed, and an example of the use of a new integration technique is presented, applied for the first time in the context of buildings.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Farhad Anvari and Rodger Edwards

The main purpose of the research is to develop a comprehensive model for measuring overall equipment effectiveness in the capital‐intensive industry such as steel, oil and…

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1177

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of the research is to develop a comprehensive model for measuring overall equipment effectiveness in the capital‐intensive industry such as steel, oil and chemical companies so as to meet their essential requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

Market time is used as a representation of all the losses, which affect incurred equipment effectiveness. Based on a comprehensive scheme for loss analysis within market time, the concept of Integrated Equipment Effectiveness (IEE) is developed. Multiple case studies including three different cases within one large Asian steel making company were developed to assess the proposed model.

Findings

The case study reveals the importance of the new scheme for loss analysis in the capital‐intensive industry. IEE provides a whole perspective on effectiveness based on loading, capital and market features.

Practical implications

IEE monitors manufacturing process to utilise equipment effectively as much as possible and also measures the equipment effectiveness for full process cycle in order to respond to the market. It provides a sound perspective on improvement to the capital‐intensive industry.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on a new model to more accurate estimation of equipment effectiveness in the capital‐intensive industry. It helps to optimise resource allocation and make better strategic decisions. The model may be applied as a benchmark to achieve world‐class standard.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Farhad Anvari and Rodger Edwards

The steel industry is a capital‐intensive industry and equipment utilisation as effectively as possible is of high priority. One of the key difficulties in the steel…

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1544

Abstract

Purpose

The steel industry is a capital‐intensive industry and equipment utilisation as effectively as possible is of high priority. One of the key difficulties in the steel industry is the need to synchronise several processes to create a flow through every machine and plant. This paper aims to introduce the concept of integrated equipment effectiveness (IEE), which is a new approach for overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) measurement in three elements, consisting of “OEE loading‐based”, “OEE capital‐based”, and “OEE market‐based” so as to meet these essential requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a comprehensive scheme for loss analysis, the concept of integrated equipment effectiveness is developed. The case study is conducted in the factory of one large Asian steel‐making company in order to examine the proposed model.

Findings

The case study reveals the importance of the new scheme for loss analysis in a steel‐making plant. IEE gives managers of steel plants a whole perspective on effectiveness. It also indicates the level of synchronisation of a specific machine for making steel within an entire organisation.

Practical implications

IEE monitors the manufacturing process to utilise equipment effectively as much as possible and also measures equipment effectiveness for the full process cycle in order to respond to the market. IEE makes communication easier and more efficient. It provides a sound perspective on improvement in steel making and also can be used as a benchmark.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on a new method for precise estimation of equipment effectiveness in a steel‐making plant. It helps in optimising resource allocation and in improving strategic decision‐making.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Farhad Anvari, Rodger Edwards and Andrew Starr

Continuous manufacturing systems used within the steel industry involve different machines and processes that are arranged in a sequence of operations in order to…

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1614

Abstract

Purpose

Continuous manufacturing systems used within the steel industry involve different machines and processes that are arranged in a sequence of operations in order to manufacture the products. The steel industry is generally a capital‐intensive industry and, because of high capital investment, the utilisation of equipment as effectively as possible is of high priority. This paper seeks to illustrate a new method, overall equipment effectiveness market‐based (OEE‐MB) for the precise calculation of equipment effectiveness for full process cycle in order to respond to the steel market.

Design/methodology/approach

A refinement of the existing concept of OEE is developed based on a new scheme for loss analysis within market time. The paper illustrates the concept with a case study based on compact strip manufacturing processes within the steel industry.

Findings

While the results for OEE by ignoring a considerable amount of possible hidden losses might be satisfying, the OEE‐MB report shows potential room for improvement. It reflects changes in both the internal and external market for the steel industry, and therefore provides a tool not only for monitoring but also for managing improvement.

Practical implications

OEE‐MB is an applicable method for the precise calculation of equipment effectiveness that provides a sound perspective on improvement of steel plants by taking into consideration all losses within market time for meeting both internal and external demands.

Originality/value

OEE‐MB monitors production and measures the equipment effectiveness for full process cycle in order to meet the market. It makes communication more efficient and easier within the steel industry and may be used as a benchmark to achieve world‐class standard.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

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70

Abstract

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Ralph H. Jansen, Cheryl L. Bowman, Sean Clarke, David Avanesian, Paula J. Dempsey and Rodger W. Dyson

This paper aims to review national aeronautics and space administration (NASA’s) broad investments in electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP). NASA investments are guided by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review national aeronautics and space administration (NASA’s) broad investments in electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP). NASA investments are guided by an assessment of potential market impacts, technical key performance parameters, and technology readiness attained through a combination of studies, enabling fundamental research and flight research.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of EAP varies by market and NASA is considering three markets as follows: national/international, on-demand mobility and short-haul regional air transport. Technical advances in key areas have been made that indicate EAP is a viable technology. Flight research is underway to demonstrate integrated solutions and inform standards and certification processes.

Findings

A key finding is that sufficient technical advances in key areas have been made, which indicate EAP is a viable technology for aircraft. Significant progress has been made to reduce EAP adoption barriers and further work is needed to transition the technology to a commercial product and improve the technology, so it is applicable to large transonic aircraft.

Practical implications

Significant progress has been made to reduce EAP adoption barriers and further work is needed to transition the technology to a commercial product and improve the technology, so it is applicable to large transonic aircraft.

Originality/value

This paper will review the activities of the hybrid gas-electric subproject of the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology Project and the X-57 Flight Demonstration Project, and discuss the potential EAP benefits for commercial and military applications. This paper focuses on the vehicle-related activities, however, there are related NASA activities in air space management and vehicle autonomy activities, as well as a breakthrough technology project called the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project. The target audience is people interested in EAP.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Ian Mann, Warwick Funnell and Robert Jupe

The purpose of this paper is to contest Edwards et al.’s (2002) findings that resistance to the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping and the form that it took when…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contest Edwards et al.’s (2002) findings that resistance to the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping and the form that it took when implemented by the British Government in the mid-nineteenth century was the result of ideological conflict between the privileged landed aristocracy and the rising merchant middle class.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon a collection of documents preserved as part of the Grigg Family Papers located in London and the Thomson Papers held in the Mitchell Library in Sydney. It also draws on evidence contained within the British National Archive, the National Maritime Museum and British Parliamentary Papers which has been overlooked by previous studies of the introduction of DEB.

Findings

Conflict and delays in the adoption of double-entry bookkeeping were not primarily the product of “ideological” differences between the influential classes. Instead, this study finds that conflict was the result of a complex amalgam of class interests, ideology, personal antipathy, professional intolerance and ambition. Newly discovered evidence recognises the critical, largely forgotten, work of John Deas Thomson in developing a double-entry bookkeeping system for the Royal Navy and the importance of Sir James Graham’s determination that matters of economy would be emphasised in the Navy’s accounting.

Originality/value

This study establishes that crucial to the ultimate implementation of double-entry bookkeeping was the passionate, determined support of influential champions with strong liberal beliefs, most especially John Deas Thomson and Sir James Graham. Prominence was given to economy in government.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1943

The complex cellular structure and chemical nature of fruit and vegetable tissues retard evaporation so that under no conditions of temperature and humidity does the rate…

Abstract

The complex cellular structure and chemical nature of fruit and vegetable tissues retard evaporation so that under no conditions of temperature and humidity does the rate of evaporation from them equal that from a free water surface. When conditions are such that surface evaporation from the tissues exceeds the rate of moisture diffusion to the surface, the surface becomes dry and hard and seals in the moisture. This condition, known as case‐hardening, is overcome by reducing the temperature of the air or by increasing the humidity. The maximum rate of drying, then, is attained by using the highest temperature which will not injure the product, the humidity being sufficient to prevent case‐hardening. In general practice the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber should not exceed 160° to 170° F. The humidity at the air‐outlet end of the drier should not greatly exceed 65 per cent. In driers employing recirculation the conditions of temperature and humidity may be largely controlled by varying the recirculation. The velocities of air flow which produce the most efficient results in the drying chamber depend upon several conditions. In general the rate of drying increases with the velocity of air movement. Low air velocities tend to bring about slow and uneven drying. Exceedingly high velocities may not be used profitably because a point is app ched at which the materials will be blown from the trays or at which the increased speed of drying will not offset the cost of operating a larger fan. Velocities of 600 to 800 feet per minute through the drying chamber are satisfactory in tunnel driers; lower velocities are permissible in compartment driers. The most practical means of removing moisture from the air, and at the same time conserving heat, is through the steady discharge of a portion of the air leaving the drying chamber. The rest dries efficiently when mixed with fresh air from the outside and reheated. All forced‐draught driers, therefore, should be provided with recirculation ducts connecting the air‐outlet end of the drying chamber with the heaters and with dampers controlling the air discharged, recirculated, and drawn from the outside. Dehydrated fruits and vegetables should have a uniform moisture content low enough to inhibit undesirable microbic and chemical changes within the food, and they should be free from any part of the life cycle of moths or other insects. The moisture content of dehydrated foods directly controls deterioration within the food, and the protection afforded by sulphuring or blanching will not prevent insufficiently dried products from soon becoming unfit for use. Dehydrated products having a low moisture content are not readily attacked by insects. In the long run the additional protection afforded by a low moisture content will more than make up to the producer the loss resulting from the longer drying time and greater weight shrinkage involved. To assure best keeping qualities the moisture content of fruits containing much sugar should not exceed 15 to 20 per cent., while that of other fruits and vegetables should not exceed 5 to 10 per cent., the preference in both cases being for the lower percentage. The texture, or feel, of products is a guide in determining when the proper stage of dryness has been reached. At a given moisture content products usually feel softer when hot than after they have been cooled, and often they feel softer after standing until the moisture has become evenly distributed throughout the pieces than when first cooled. A rough test for moisture in dried fruits is to take up a double handful, squeeze it tight into a ball, and release the pressure. If the fruit seems soft, mushy, or wet, and sticks together when the pressure is released, the moisture content is probably 25 per cent. or more. If the fruit is springy, and, when the pressure is released, separates in a few seconds to form pieces of approximately the original size and shape, the moisture content is usually about 20 to 25 per cent. If the fruit feels hard or horny and does not press together, falling apart promptly when the pressure is released, the moisture content is probably below 20 per cent. At the proper stage of dryness vegetables look thoroughly dry and are often hard or crisp. The Association of Official Agricultural Chemists has published a method for the determination of moisture in dried fruits. In using methods of this type, care must be taken to select a composite sample from different parts of the lot, so that it will be representative of the lot as a whole, and directions for preparing the sample must be carefully followed in order to obtain dependable results. Products are never uniformly dry when removed from the drier. Large pieces and pieces not as directly exposed to the currents of heated air as most of the material contain more moisture than the rest. Products should be stored in large bins until the moisture becomes evenly distributed. This period of curing will usually take several weeks. An alternative method is to place the dried product in large friction‐top cans for curing, thus insuring complete protection from contamination and insect infestation. Leafy vegetables, like spinach, must remain in the drier until the moisture content of the stems is very low. At this point the product is bulky and the leaves are brittle. For economy in packing and handling it is desirable to reduce the bulk by compression. For this purpose the leaves are exposed to currents of cool damp air until they have reabsorbed just enough moisture to make them slightly flexible. For convenience in handling and to facilitate the application of heat or fumigation, products should be packed in the room where they were cured and stored. Such a room should be strictly clean, dry, cool and well ventilated. The doors should fit tightly, and the windows should be covered with fine‐mesh screen to exclude dust and insects. An abundance of light assists in detecting the presence of insects and in keeping the room clean. The types of containers chosen for packing will depend largely upon the severity of the storage conditions, with particular reference to the humidity and to chances of insect infestation. An ideal container would be one which, while moderate in cost, would keep the product from absorbing moisture when exposed to the most severe conditions of storage and shipment, and would be impervious to insects. Sealed tin cans and glass jars give absolute protection against moisture absorption and insect infestation. Friction‐top cans are nearly as good. Tin containers, necessary for export shipments of dehydrated foods, are more expensive than paper containers. Wooden boxes are generally used for bulk goods. Liners of heavy paper or cardboard, and sometimes additional liners of waxed paper, are used. The use of moisture‐proof cellophane packages is increasing. All types of paper containers with which experiments have been made allow the absorption of moisture when the products are stored in damp places. Also paper containers do not give perfect protection against all insects, some of which can bore holes in paper, while the larval forms of others are so small that they can crawl through the slightest imperfections at the joints where the cartons are sealed. Most products, however, keep satisfactorily in double or triple moisture‐proof cellophane or waxed‐paper bags packed in waxed, moisture‐proof cartons, provided the initial moisture content is low and no live insects in any form enter the package. Packing in insect‐proof and moisture‐proof packages cannot be too greatly stressed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Catriona Paisey and Nicholas J. Paisey

Company law harmonisation is considered to be necessary for the achievement of the European Union's (EU) aim of a single market and the free movement of goods and services…

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3221

Abstract

Company law harmonisation is considered to be necessary for the achievement of the European Union's (EU) aim of a single market and the free movement of goods and services throughout member states. This paper aims to contribute to understanding of both business and accounting history by considering whether UK legal history can offer any insight into the process of harmonisation. First, approaches to company law in the United Kingdom and the remainder of the EU are outlined in order to identify key differences and to explain why harmonisation is desired. Secondly, the UK position is considered and historical attempts to lessen legal differences between Scots and English mercantile laws are then examined, focusing on harmonisation attempts. Finally, by reflecting on the UK experience, implications for the EU company law harmonisation programme are drawn.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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