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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Antoine Gilbert-Saad, Rod B. McNaughton and Frank Siedlok

Research has reliably demonstrated that decision-makers, especially expert ones, use heuristics to make decisions under uncertainty. However, whether decision-makers with…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has reliably demonstrated that decision-makers, especially expert ones, use heuristics to make decisions under uncertainty. However, whether decision-makers with little or no experience also do, and if so, how? is unknown. This research addresses this issue in the marketing context by studying how a group of young and generally inexperienced entrepreneurs decide when asked to set a price and choose a distribution channel in a scenario involving a hypothetical firm.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used think-aloud protocols to elicit data and then used inductive procedures to code the data for analysis.

Findings

The inexperienced entrepreneurs in the sample used three types of heuristics in their decision-making, forming a structured process that narrows in scope. First, metacognitive heuristics, which specify a decision-making approach, were used, followed by heuristics representing the criteria they considered, and finally, heuristics detailing the execution of a selected option. The authors also found that heuristics relating to a market orientation, especially customer-centric criteria, were the most common, but these were balanced with ones representing an internal orientation or growth.

Research limitations/implications

The generally inexperienced decision-makers the authors’ studied used heuristics in a structured way that helped them to select and balance several potentially conflicting decision-making criteria. As with most research using qualitative research designs, the generalizability of these findings is unclear. Further research on the mechanisms by which relatively inexperienced decision-makers learn the heuristics they use is recommended.

Originality/value

This research's novelty lies in its focus on heuristic use by nonexpert decision-makers under conditions of uncertainty and the findings about their scope and the order they are used. As the authors collected data from think-aloud protocols with relatively young entrepreneurs with limited experience, they also offer a description of the heuristics used by nascent entrepreneurs when making marketing decisions about pricing and channels. The most surprising conclusion is that even without relevant domain-specific knowledge, decision-makers can use heuristics in an ecologically rational way (i.e. structured to match the environment).

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2017

Stefan Korber and Rod B. McNaughton

The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature at the intersection of resilience and entrepreneurship. It identifies six scholarly conversations, each of which…

6034

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature at the intersection of resilience and entrepreneurship. It identifies six scholarly conversations, each of which draws on distinct notions of resilience and entrepreneurship. Based on those conversations, shortcomings in the existing literature are discussed and avenues for future research are outlined.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic multi-disciplinary review of 144 papers that are categorized into six scholarly conversations to build the foundation for a critical discussion of each line of inquiry.

Findings

This paper identifies six conversations or research streams at the intersection of entrepreneurship and resilience: resilience as traits or characteristics of entrepreneurial firms or individuals, resilience as a trigger for entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial behavior as enhancing organizational resilience, entrepreneurial firms fostering macro-level (regions, communities, economies) resilience, resilience in the context of entrepreneurial failure, and resilience as a process of recovery and transformation. The review revealed these publications imprecisely define constructs and use a limited amount of the extant scholarship on both entrepreneurship and resilience. Future research should take a more holistic approach to explore entrepreneurship and resilience from a multi-level and longitudinal perspective, especially in the context of socio-ecological sustainability.

Originality/value

This paper incorporates insights on resilience and entrepreneurship across academic disciplines to show how future contributions could benefit by incorporating research from other fields. In doing so, it provides a starting point for more nuanced discussions around the interrelationships between the different conversations and the role entrepreneurs can play in promoting a positive, long-term trajectory for a socio-ecological system.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Rod B. McNaughton and Brendan Gray

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on links between entrepreneurship and resilience.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on links between entrepreneurship and resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors discuss some key themes in this emerging area of research and reflect on how the papers in the issue contribute to debates in the literature on resilience.

Findings

While the papers in the special issue make important contributions, there is still scope for more research.

Originality/value

This is one of the first issues of a journal devoted to investigating this topic.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Olli Kuivalainen, Sanna Sundqvist, Sami Saarenketo and Rod McNaughton

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and…

9743

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) should be conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive overview of concepts and a conceptual framework to study internationalization patterns of SMEs is offered.

Findings

The complexities of existing definitions and methodologies for researching internationalization patterns are highlighted, and a synthesis of the issues is provided. An integrative model of internationalization pathways, and their antecedents and outcomes is presented.

Research limitations/implications

It is recommended that future research focuses especially on the time dimension of internationalization patterns. Future research can contribute to the literature by adopting a longitudinal approach with larger samples and more detailed cases to capture the dynamics of internationalization.

Practical implications

Practitioners might map their positions, and look for challenges and opportunities with regard to their chosen internationalization pattern. They can also benchmark other firms’ pathways and fine‐tune their own approach to internationalization.

Originality/value

The paper integrates a large body of research in an important research area in international marketing. It also provides guidance on how to conduct future research in the area, and introduces the content of this special issue of the International Marketing Review.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Rod B. McNaughton

A transaction cost analysis model of the situations in which small knowledge‐intensive firms use multiple distribution channels to serve a foreign market is developed. The…

1700

Abstract

A transaction cost analysis model of the situations in which small knowledge‐intensive firms use multiple distribution channels to serve a foreign market is developed. The central argument is that integrated modes are generally preferred, as they facilitate protection of knowledge‐based assets and the provision of high levels of customer service and support. However, it is hypothesised that either plural or hybrid selling may be used, if assets can be protected in other ways, as a response to environmental diversity, when sales volumes are sufficient to support multiple channels, and in relatively mature markets, where sales growth has started to plateau. Data gathered from Canadian software developers generally support these propositions. The results help the managers of knowledge‐intensive firms to identify some of the circumstances in which multiple export channels might be deployed to enhance sales performance in a foreign market.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Rod B. McNaughton

The choice of export mode is a key decision for firms entering foreign markets. The channel management and internationalisation literatures provide rationales for the…

2684

Abstract

The choice of export mode is a key decision for firms entering foreign markets. The channel management and internationalisation literatures provide rationales for the selection of channel modes but offer little insight into the nature of the decision‐making process itself. There is a paucity of research that answers questions such as how long does it take to make a decision, is a formal plan prepared, and is advice solicited from external sources? This paper reports the results of a disk‐by‐mail survey that collected information on the export mode decisions of Canadian software firms. Managers of the responding firms most frequently reported that they made their decision quickly and by intuition, without the benefit of formal studies or consultation with outside experts. Further, the characteristics of the decision process have no statistically significant association with channel performance. The implications of these results for the theory and practice of export marketing are discussed.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Jenny Darroch and Rod McNaughton

Knowledge is seen as a critical resource, with both tangible and intangible attributes. Effective knowledge management is emerging as an important concept that enables all…

3414

Abstract

Knowledge is seen as a critical resource, with both tangible and intangible attributes. Effective knowledge management is emerging as an important concept that enables all the resources of firms, including knowledge, to be used effectively. A knowledge‐management orientation is positioned in this paper as a distinctive capability that supports the creation of sustainable competitive advantages such as innovation. Using an instrument to measure a knowledge‐management orientation, which is grounded in Kohli, Jaworski and Kumar's work on a market orientation, this paper identifies four clusters of firms based on knowledge‐management practices that exist within the New Zealand business environment. The clusters are then described according to their innovation and financial performance profiles. The study finds that firms with a knowledge‐management orientation outperformed those classified as market‐oriented. The study also shows a market orientation to be a subset of a knowledge‐management orientation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Tanja Kontinen and Arto Ojala

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the internationalization of family firms; to investigate how the framework by Bell et al. on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the internationalization of family firms; to investigate how the framework by Bell et al. on the internationalization patterns of firms could explain the internationalization pathways taken by family‐owned small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs); and to identify typical patterns and features in the various pathways taken by family‐owned SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports findings from an in‐depth multiple case study with eight Finnish family‐owned SMEs.

Findings

The ownership structure had the most important role in defining the internationalization pathways followed by the family‐owned SMEs: a fragmented ownership structure led to traditional internationalization pathway whereas a concentrated ownership base led to born global or born‐again global pathways.

Practical implications

Family entrepreneurs should carefully consider the division of ownership and seek to build new relationships in foreign markets, in addition to their primary co‐operators.

Originality/value

The authors extend the integrative model of small firm internationalization by Bell et al. toward family‐owned SMEs and highlight the most important dimensions in the different internationalization pathways of family SMEs. The ownership dimension is integrated within discussion on differing internationalization pathways. The authors utilize a family business specific perspective (the stewardship perspective), in order to understand the specific features of internationalization among family SMEs, and also how these features differ between family SMEs and other firms.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Edith Olejnik and Bernhard Swoboda

The purpose of this paper is to identify the internationalisation patterns of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) quantitatively, to describe SMEs as they follow…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the internationalisation patterns of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) quantitatively, to describe SMEs as they follow different patterns over time and to discuss the determinants of these patterns through empirical study.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a questionnaire survey among mature German SMEs (n=674). To identify internationalisation patterns, a latent class clustering approach was applied. Because of the large sample, a multinomial logistic regression analysis could be used to analyse the factors influencing these patterns.

Findings

The authors empirically find three internationalisation patterns: traditionals, born globals and born‐again globals. Comparing modern SMEs with the same SMEs from ten years ago, it was found that firms may change their patterns. Moreover, the patterns are determined by international orientation, growth orientation, communication capability, intelligence generation capability and marketing‐mix standardisation.

Research limitations/implications

Combining elements of the Uppsala model (countries and operation modes) and born global research (time lag and foreign sales ratio), three internationalisation patterns of established international SMEs from traditional sectors were identified empirically. Because of the multidimensional nature of internationalisation, the patterns may change over time. Different firm‐level factors determine the internationalisation patterns.

Originality/value

Instead of applying “arbitrary” thresholds, the paper provides a quantitative approach to identifying internationalisation patterns. These patterns confirm the three main internationalisation pathways discussed in the international marketing literature. The paper further advances the field by describing the patterns, showing evidence that the patterns may cross over time and providing information on the factors that influence the patterns.

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Jenny Darroch and Rod McNaughton

The management of knowledge is frequently identified as an important antecedent of innovation. However, very little empirical research has specifically addressed…

16056

Abstract

The management of knowledge is frequently identified as an important antecedent of innovation. However, very little empirical research has specifically addressed antecedents and consequences of effective knowledge management. Using data collected from 443 New Zealand firms, a knowledge management instrument, which comprises three components and 16 factors, is regressed against a three‐factor innovation scale that captures incremental innovation, innovation that changes consumers’ behaviour and innovation that destroys existing competencies. The results of this research show that knowledge acquisition and responsiveness to knowledge are more important for innovation than knowledge dissemination.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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