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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

49

Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Manuel Armada and Pablo Gonzalez de Santos

Explains how the Automatic Control Department of the Instituto de Automatica Industrial (CSIC) in Madrid, Spain has been developing robots for over 15 years. This activity…

Abstract

Explains how the Automatic Control Department of the Instituto de Automatica Industrial (CSIC) in Madrid, Spain has been developing robots for over 15 years. This activity began in the 1980s with the realization of industrial robots and then the department focused its attention on the area of robots for hostile/hazardous environments. Describes several achievements in this field including a complex tele‐operated system for steam generator inspection and maintenance in nuclear power plants; a tele‐manipulator for servicing a new concept of urban infrastructures; a self‐propelling climbing robot with magnetic feet; and a four‐legged walking robot for hazardous environments.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2022

Subhradip Mukherjee, R. Kumar and Siddhanta Borah

This paper aims to incorporate one intelligent particle swarm optimization (IPSO) controller to realize an optimum path in unknown environments. In this paper, the fitness…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to incorporate one intelligent particle swarm optimization (IPSO) controller to realize an optimum path in unknown environments. In this paper, the fitness function of IPSO is designed with intelligent design parameters, solving the path navigation problem of an autonomous wheeled robot towards the target point by avoiding obstacles in any unknown environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This controller depends on randomly oriented positions with all other position information and a fitness function. Evaluating the position’s best values, this study gets the local best values, and finally, the global best value is updated as the current value after comparing the local best values.

Findings

The path navigation of the proposed controller has been compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm, BAT algorithm, flower pollination algorithm, invasive weed algorithm and genetic algorithm in multiple challenging environments. The proposed controller shows the percent deviation in path length near 14.54% and the percent deviation in travel time near 4% after the simulation. IPSO is applied to optimize said parameters for path navigation of the wheeled robot in different simulation environments.

Originality/value

A hardware model with a 32-bit ARM board interfaced with a global positioning system (GPS) module, an ultrasonic module and ZigBee wireless communication module is designed to implement IPSO. In real-time, the IPSO controller shows the percent deviation in path length near 9%.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Daniel Rodić and Andries P. Engelbrecht

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach to coordination of multi‐agent teams, and in particular multi‐robot teams. The new approach is based on models of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach to coordination of multi‐agent teams, and in particular multi‐robot teams. The new approach is based on models of organisational sociology, namely the concept of social networks. The social relationships used in the model that is presented in this paper are trust and kinship relationships, but modified for use in heterogeneous multi‐robot teams.

Design/methodology/approach

The coordination of a robot team is achieved through task allocation. The proposed task allocation mechanism was tested in the multi‐robot team task allocation simulation.

Findings

The social networks‐based task allocation algorithm has performed according to expectations and the obtained results are very promising. Some intriguing similarities with higher mammalian societies were observed and they are discussed in this paper. The social networks‐based approach also exhibited the ability to learn and store information using social networks.

Research limitations/implications

The research focused on simulated environments and further research is envisaged in the physical environments to confirm the applicability of the presented approach.

Practical implications

In this paper, the proposed coordination was applied to simulated multi‐robot teams. It is important to note that the proposed coordination model is not robot specific, but can also be applied to almost any multi‐agent system without major modifications.

Originality/value

The paper emphasizes applicability of considering multi‐robot teams as socially embodied agents. It also presents a novel and efficient approach to task allocation.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2016

Anish Pandey and Dayal R. Parhi

This study concerns an on-line path planning technique for a behaviour-based wheeled mobile robot local navigation in an unknown environment with hurdles, using the…

330

Abstract

Purpose

This study concerns an on-line path planning technique for a behaviour-based wheeled mobile robot local navigation in an unknown environment with hurdles, using the feedforward back-propagation neural network sensor-actuator control technique. The purpose of this study is to find the non-collision path for the mobile robot moving towards the goal in a cluttered environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Neural network architecture input layers are the different hurdle distance information, which are acquired by an array of equipped sensors, and the output layer is the turning angle (motor control). In this way, the mobile robot is effectively being trained to move autonomously in the environment.

Findings

Computer simulation and real-time experimental results show that the proposed neural network controller can improve navigation performance in cluttered and unknown environments.

Originality/value

The proposed neural network controller gives better results (in terms of path length) as compared to previously developed models, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed architecture.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Saroj Kumar, Dayal R. Parhi, Manoj Kumar Muni and Krishna Kant Pandey

This paper aims to incorporate a hybridized advanced sine-cosine algorithm (ASCA) and advanced ant colony optimization (AACO) technique for optimal path search with…

203

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to incorporate a hybridized advanced sine-cosine algorithm (ASCA) and advanced ant colony optimization (AACO) technique for optimal path search with control over multiple mobile robots in static and dynamic unknown environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The controller for ASCA and AACO is designed and implemented through MATLAB simulation coupled with real-time experiments in various environments. Whenever the sensors detect obstacles, ASCA is applied to find their global best positions within the sensing range, following which AACO is activated to choose the next stand-point. This is how the robot travels to the specified target point.

Findings

Navigational analysis is carried out by implementing the technique developed here using single and multiple mobile robots. Its efficiency is authenticated through the comparison between simulation and experimental results. Further, the proposed technique is found to be more efficient when compared with existing methodologies. Significant improvements of about 10.21 per cent in path length are achieved along with better control over these.

Originality/value

Systematic presentation of the proposed technique attracts a wide readership among researchers where AI technique is the application criteria.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Dimitri V. Zarzhitsky, Diana F. Spears and David R. Thayer

The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi‐robot solution to the problem of chemical source localization, in which a team of inexpensive, simple vehicles with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi‐robot solution to the problem of chemical source localization, in which a team of inexpensive, simple vehicles with short‐range, low‐power sensing, communication, and processing capabilities trace a chemical plume to its source emitter

Design/methodology/approach

The source localization problem is analyzed using computational fluid dynamics simulations of airborne chemical plumes. The analysis is divided into two parts consisting of two large experiments each: the first part focuses on the issues of collaborative control, and the second part demonstrates how task performance is affected by the number of collaborating robots. Each experiment tests a key aspect of the problem, e.g. effects of obstacles, and defines performance metrics that help capture important characteristics of each solution.

Findings

The new empirical simulations confirmed previous theoretical predictions: a physics‐based approach is more effective than the biologically inspired methods in meeting the objectives of the plume‐tracing mission. This gain in performance is consistent across a variety of plume and environmental conditions. This work shows that high success rate can be achieved by robots using strictly local information and a fully decentralized, fault‐tolerant, and reactive control algorithm.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to compare a physics‐based approach against the leading alternatives for chemical plume tracing under a wide variety of fluid conditions and performance metrics. This is also the first presentation of the algorithms showing the specific mechanisms employed to achieve superior performance, including the underlying fluid and other physics principles and their numerical implementation, and the mechanisms that allow the practitioner to duplicate the outstanding performance of this approach under conditions of many robots navigating through obstacle‐dense environments.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

David Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on time to complete a task depending on how a human operator interacts with a mobile‐robot. Interaction is…

1117

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on time to complete a task depending on how a human operator interacts with a mobile‐robot. Interaction is investigated using two tele‐operated mobile‐robot systems, three different ways of interacting with robots and several different environments. The speed of a tele‐operator in completing progressively more complicated driving tasks is investigated also.

Design/methodology/approach

Tele‐operators are timed completing a series of tasks using a joystick to control a mobile‐robot. They either watch the robot while operating it, or sit at a computer and view scenes remotely on a screen. Cameras are either mounted on the robot, or so that they view both the environment and robot. Tele‐operators complete tests both with and without sensors. One robot system uses an umbilical cable and one uses a radio link.

Findings

In simple environments, a tele‐operator may perform better without a sensor system to assist them but in more complicated environments then a tele‐operator may perform better with a sensor system to assist. Tele‐operators may also tend to perform better with a radio link than with an umbilical connection. Tele‐operators sometimes perform better with a camera mounted on the robot compared with pre‐mounted cameras observing the environment (but that depends on tasks being performed).

Research limitations/implications

Tele‐operated systems rely heavily on visual feedback and experienced operators. This paper investigates how to make tasks easier.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that the amount of sensor support should be varied depending on circumstances.

Originality/value

Results show that human tele‐operators perform better without the assistance of a sensor systems in simple environments.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Chetan Kapoor and Delbert Tesar

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

1962

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This work leverages developments in the area of operational software Operational Software Components for Advanced Robotics (OSCAR), decision making, human‐machine interface, and motion planning. This demonstration uses a 17 degrees‐of‐freedom (DOF) dual arm robot that is equipped with modern tool changers, crash protectors, force‐torque sensors and electrical and pneumatic power at the tools. Four different end‐effector tools are also provided. These are electric grippers, electric rotary saw, electric drill, and a pneumatic spray gun. The system can be used both in teleoperation and automation mode. In teleoperation mode, the user has a choice of five different input devices. These are computer keyboard, spaceball and spacemouse, RSI manual controller and kraft force feedback controller. Automation is performed using a novel graphical user interface with 3D graphics used for previewing and verifying manipulator motion. Automation tasks that are demonstrated include automatic grasping, sawing, drilling, spray painting, point‐to‐point motion, and teaching. The controller for the dual arm system is developed using OSCAR and supports a variety of decision‐making algorithms and obstacle avoidance. The integration of this controller with the input devices and human machine interface is done using a novel protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for maximum reuse and distributed integration. This protocol is further based on a well‐defined and scalable XML schema that can be easily extended as controller functionality is changed and/or additional input devices are added.

Findings

It is necessary to combine automation with teleoperation to reduce worker fatigue and also provide higher value robotic functions. This is possible as most remote tasks can be broken down into structured and unstructured components. On the integration front, we see XML‐based integration providing a loosely coupled system that can make interoperability between various robot systems possible. For end‐effector tooling, it is better to have special purpose tools that can be switched out versus the use of a general purpose tool such as a robotic hand.

Research limitations/implications

This research was done in a laboratory environment, and as such, its application in the field will require partnering with a commercial entity. Force‐feedback on manual controllers during teleoperation was not very effective. In fact, providing visual queues to the operator about the forces were a better guide to the operator.

Practical implications

The software for this work provides obstacle avoidance capability. The obstacle avoidance is based on a known world model that is derived from a CAD environment. In reality, this model will have to be sensed in real‐time, and decoded into a geometric model. Significant work in this area needs to be done.

Originality/value

The software developed for this work was based on the OSCAR software framework. This is a unique framework that at its core uses performance criteria to control the behavior of the robot during teleoperation and automation. The value of this work is that it shows as completely feasible the control of a 17 DOF dual arm system using the latest integration technologies (such as XML), integrated simulation, multiple tools and multiple input devices. It also shows that all these choices can be provided to an operator through a single user interface.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Diana F. Spears, David R. Thayer and Dimitri V. Zarzhitsky

In light of the current international concerns with security and terrorism, interest is increasing on the topic of using robot swarms to locate the source of chemical…

Abstract

Purpose

In light of the current international concerns with security and terrorism, interest is increasing on the topic of using robot swarms to locate the source of chemical hazards. The purpose of this paper is to place this task, called chemical plume tracing (CPT), in the context of fluid dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a foundation for CPT based on the physics of fluid dynamics. The theoretical approach is founded upon source localization using the divergence theorem of vector calculus, and the fundamental underlying notion of the divergence of the chemical mass flux. A CPT algorithm called fluxotaxis is presented that follows the gradient of this mass flux to locate a chemical source emitter.

Findings

Theoretical results are presented confirming that fluxotaxis will guide a robot swarm toward chemical sources, and away from misleading chemical sinks. Complementary empirical results demonstrate that in simulation, a swarm of fluxotaxis‐guided mobile robots rapidly converges on a source emitter despite obstacles, realistic vehicle constraints, and flow regimes ranging from laminar to turbulent. Fluxotaxis outperforms the two leading competitors, and the theoretical results are confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, initial experiments on real robots show promise for CPT in relatively uncontrolled indoor environments.

Practical implications

A physics‐based approach is shown to be a viable alternative to existing mainly biomimetic approaches to CPT. It has the advantage of being analyzable using standard physics analysis methods.

Originality/value

The fluxotaxis algorithm for CPT is shown to be “correct” in the sense that it is guaranteed to point toward a true source emitter and not be fooled by fluid sinks. It is experimentally (in simulation), and in one case also theoretically, shown to be superior to its leading competitors at finding a source emitter in a wide variety of challenging realistic environments.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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