Search results

1 – 10 of 12
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Craig Webster and Stanislav Ivanov

Future tourism will take place in a robonomic economy (aka robonomics). The massive introduction of robots, artificial intelligence and automation technologies which will…

Abstract

Purpose

Future tourism will take place in a robonomic economy (aka robonomics). The massive introduction of robots, artificial intelligence and automation technologies which will lead to the advent of an economy that will be qualitatively different from the current economy. The robonomic economy will have profound implications on the nature of work, level and sources of incomes, leisure time, politics, international trade and relations, ownership rights, etc., hence leading to major social, economic and political challenges and tension. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on how tourism will be in a robonomic society.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a perspective paper that shows how tourism will be in a robonomic society. This is a conceptual perspective article that shows how tourism will be in a robonomic society.

Findings

This paper elaborates on the tourism/hospitality implications of robonomics, the positive and negative impacts of robonomics on tourism and vice versa.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to discuss tourism implications of a future automated society.

Content available
Article

Sheena Carlisle, Stanislav Ivanov and Corné Dijkmans

This paper aims to present the findings from a European study on the digital skills gaps in tourism and hospitality companies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the findings from a European study on the digital skills gaps in tourism and hospitality companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods research was adopted. The sample includes 1,668 respondents (1,404 survey respondents and 264 interviewees) in 5 tourism sectors (accommodation establishments, tour operators and travel agents, food and beverage, visitor attractions and destination management organisations) in 8 European countries (UK, Italy, Ireland, Spain, Hungary, Germany, the Netherlands and Bulgaria).

Findings

The most important future digital skills include online marketing and communication skills, social media skills, MS Office skills, operating systems use skills and skills to monitor online reviews. The largest gaps between the current and the future skill levels were identified for artificial intelligence and robotics skills and augmented reality and virtual reality skills, but these skills, together with computer programming skills, were considered also as the least important digital skills. Three clusters were identified on the basis of their reported gaps between the current level and the future needs of digital skills. The country of registration, sector and size shape respondents’ answers regarding the current and future skills levels and the skills gap between them.

Originality/value

The paper discusses the digital skills gap of tourism and hospitality employees and identifies the most important digital skills they would need in the future.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Stanislav Ivanov, Ulrike Gretzel, Katerina Berezina, Marianna Sigala and Craig Webster

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of research on robotics in travel, tourism and hospitality, and to identify research gaps and directions for future research.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of research on robotics in travel, tourism and hospitality, and to identify research gaps and directions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes 131 publications published during 1993-2019, identified via Scopus, Web of Science, ResearchGate, Academia.edu and Google Scholar. It offers quantitative analysis of frequencies and cross-tables and qualitative thematic analysis of the publications within each of seven identified domains.

Findings

The paper identifies “Robot,” “Human,” “Robot manufacturer,” “Travel/tourism/hospitality company,” “Servicescape,” “External environment” and “Education, training and research” as the research domains. Most research studies are dedicated to robots in restaurants, airports, hotels and bars. Papers tend to apply engineering methods, but experiments and surveys grow in popularity. Asia-Pacific countries account for much of the empirical research.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis was limited to publications indexed in four databases and one search engine. Only publications in English were considered. Growing opportunities for those who are anxious to publish in the field are identified. Importantly, emerging research is branching out from the engineering of robots to the possibilities for human/robot interactions and their use for service providers, opening up new avenues of research for tourism and hospitality scholars.

Practical implications

The paper identified a myriad of application areas for robots across various tourism and hospitality sectors. Service providers must critically think about how robots affect the servicescape and how it needs to be adjusted or re-imagined to ensure that robots and employees can augment the service experiences (co-)created within it.

Originality/value

This is the first study to systematically analyze research publications on robotics in travel, tourism and hospitality.

研究目的

本论文全面评论了在旅游酒店业中的机器人技术的研究, 并指出文献缺口和未来研究方向。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文分析了在1993年至2019年发布在Scopus、Web of Science、ResearchGate、Academia.edu、和Google Scholar的131篇文献。本论文对文献做了一系列定量分析, 包括频率分析、交叉表、定性文本分析、在七大确立的领域中对每个领域的文献进行分析。

研究结果

本论文确立了七个研究领域:机器人、人类、机器生产者、旅游酒店企业、Servicescape、外部环境、和教育培训和研究。大多数文献集中在对饭店、机场、酒店、和酒吧的机器人研究。文献往往采用工程手段进行研究, 但是实验和问卷方式正在呈增长趋势。亚太国家占据大多数实证研究作品。

研究理论限制/意义

本论文样本库局限于四个数据库和一个搜索引擎。只有英文文献被采样。本论文为对相关领域感兴趣的学者指出研究方向。重要的是, 本论文发现用工程角度研究机器人的文献有了分支, 有一小部分文献开始着手研究人/机器人交互和其在服务过程中的使用的研究, 这对旅游酒店学者提供新研究视角。

研究实践意义

本论文指出了一系列有关旅游酒店领域中机器人的应用。服务商必须重视机器人如何影响Servicescape以及如何审视机器人与人的交互, 确保其与员工加强消费者的服务体验(价值共创)。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首篇系统评论旅游酒店领域中机器人研究文献的文章。

关键词:机器人、机器人经济、机器人设计、机器人使用、Servicescape、rService、人-机器人交互、研究议程

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Content available
Article

Faruk Seyitoğlu and Stanislav Ivanov

The purpose of this study is to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world and understand the components of robotic restaurant experience.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world and understand the components of robotic restaurant experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Travellers who had experienced a robotic restaurant were purposefully selected as a sample group for the study. As the robotic restaurants are limited around the world, multiple case study method has been chosen to gather richer data. A user-generated content technique which is a form of qualitative case study method has been benefited to gather data from travellers’ reviews.

Findings

The results reveal a model of components of robotic restaurant experience that include six main themes: attraction for kids, robotic system, memorable experience, ambience related attributes, food related attributes (economic value and gastronomic aspects) and deficiencies (in robotic system, in ambience related attributes and in food related attributes).

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world. Moreover, it contributes to the research on restaurant experience and offers a model of components of the robotic restaurant experience.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Content available
Article

Craig Webster and Stanislav Ivanov

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how demographic changes in developed countries will continue to drive the tourism and hospitality industries to adopt automation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how demographic changes in developed countries will continue to drive the tourism and hospitality industries to adopt automation in business operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is an analysis of the trends in human reproduction in the developed countries and a discussion of their implications for the travel, tourism and hospitality industries.

Findings

There are three major solutions to the demographic problem faced in developed countries and the replacement of human labour with automation is the most practical, immediate and has the fewest risks and negative externalities.

Practical implications

Industry has to adapt to the new demographic reality and embrace automation of services, educate their customers and have policies to deal with the resistance expected by labour.

Social implications

Society can expect that many of the tasks they commonly expect humans to be involved in will be done by machines and artificial intelligence in the near future, if demographic trends continue and massive immigration into developed countries is not a continuing phenomenon.

Originality/value

This links the relationship between demographic trends to the use of automation in the travel, tourism and hospitality industries.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Stanislav Ivanov and Craig Webster

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to elaborate on the major conceptual and practical considerations of the use of robots, artificial intelligence and service…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to elaborate on the major conceptual and practical considerations of the use of robots, artificial intelligence and service automation (RAISA) in travel, tourism, and hospitality companies (TTH).

Design/methodology/approach: The chapter develops a conceptual framework of the major issues related to the use of RAISA in the travel, tourism and hospitality context.

Findings: The findings indicate that while there is a creeping incursion of RAISA into TTH, there are major concerns that the TTH industry has to consider in regard to automating TTH services.

Practical implications: In a practical sense, the chapter identifies the decisions that TTH industry professionals need to take when dealing with RAISA technologies. Furthermore, the chapter elaborates on the impacts RAISA have on business operations, marketing management, human resources and financial management of TTH companies. The TTH industry has to adjust its practices and communicate with its workforce in ways as not to increase Luddite tendencies and resistance among employees.

Social implications: The analysis shows that there is an upcoming era in which automation of services will be so advanced that wealthy countries may not need to import labour to make up with its own aging workforce, suggesting that RAISA and its further development has the potential for disrupting society and international relations.

Originality/value: This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the issues related to the use of RAISA in the TTH industry, including the drivers of RAISA adoption in tourism, advantages and disadvantages of RAISA technologies compared to human employees, decisions that managers need to take, and the impacts of RAISA on business processes. It shows how macroenvironmental pressures shape the microeconomic decisions to use RAISA in a TTH context.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Kadir Çakar and Şehmus Aykol

The purpose of this paper is to investigate travellers’ behaviour and examine their reactions to high-tech hotels offering robotic services to customers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate travellers’ behaviour and examine their reactions to high-tech hotels offering robotic services to customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from user-generated content within the context of a qualitative research method by analysing the online narratives of travellers at TripAdvisor who visited robotic hotels. Data analysis was realised through content analysis, which revealed various themes and categories of traveller behaviour and reactions to technology.

Findings

Results show that robotic services significantly improve the quality of service offered to travellers, while positively affecting travellers’ intention to revisit robotic hotels within the context of customer engagement behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the present research reveal that the introduction of new technologies in the service industry, such as the robotic butler, can have considerable effects on guest behaviour and attitudes. This field has emerged as a new sub-dimension of customer engagement.

Practical implications

The use of robots will most likely enhance experiences through interaction between customers and robots. Additionally, in cases where social distancing is required, the use of robots in the hospitality and tourism industry may increase the mobility of people wishing to travel by applying social distancing through use of robots in services.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the extant literature by identifying the concept of adoption as a sub-dimension deriving from human–robot interaction, thus generating the novelty of the research.

研究目的

本论文旨在研究游客行为以及检验其对高科技酒店提供机器人服务给客人的反应。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用定性分析手段, 采集样本为TripAdvisor游客光顾机器人酒店的在线叙述文本, 即用户生成内容(UGC)。本论文采用文本分析法, 以确定多种游客行为和对科技的反应等多个主题和范畴。

研究结果

研究结果表明, 机器人服务大大提高游客服务质量, 同时也积极影响游客再光顾机器人酒店的意向, 在顾客参与行为(CEBs)的研究背景下。

研究理论限制/启示

本论文研究结果表明, 服务产业的新科技引用, 比如机器人服务员, 能够对顾客行为和态度产生显著的影响。这一研究领域作为顾客参与(CE)的新维度正在兴起。

研究理论意义

新技术的引用将提高顾客的服务质量, 从而促成顾客的价值共创。此外, 还可以帮助消除游客对受到健康相关危机影响的担忧; 从业人员应该考虑在其公司、企业、或者机构中采用机器人服务。

研究实际启示

机器人的使用将很有可能通过机器人与顾客的交互而提高顾客体验。此外, 在被要求社交隔离的情况下, 在酒店和旅游业中使用机器人将增加人们旅游的流动性。

研究原创性/价值

本论文补充了现有文献, 确立了机器人接纳作为人机交互的第二维度, 从而证实了本文的新颖性。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Dandison C. Ukpabi, Bilal Aslam and Heikki Karjaluoto

Purpose: The information-intensive nature of the tourism and hospitality industry requires regular communication between firms and customers. Yet, customer service…

Abstract

Purpose: The information-intensive nature of the tourism and hospitality industry requires regular communication between firms and customers. Yet, customer service personnel’s high contact levels with customers often lead to customer dissatisfaction arising from embarrassment in emotion-inducing service encounters. Accordingly, such companies have been seeking a cost-effective means of maintaining consistency in customer contact. Thus, it seems that the future of chatbots is here.

Design/methodology/approach: This chapter examines chatbots in two ways: the technical composition and its adoption by tourism firms. The technical perspective is represented by a diagram which espouses the functioning of chatbots from inputs query to output reply. On its adoption by tourism firms, two main organizational theories were proposed.

Findings: While chatbots are diffusing rapidly in other areas, their use in the tourism and hospitality industry remains low. We have examined the role of chatbots in various areas of the tourism and hospitality industry and highlighted the barriers to their successful adoption. By applying a conceptual and theoretical approach, our study used a hybrid of institutional theory and organizational learning theory and diagrammatically espouses how the integration of these theories can aid subsequent studies to understand the environmental and organization-specific factors influencing chatbots adoption.

Research limitations/implications: This study is conceptual, consequently, we recommend future studies to empirical test and validate our proposed conceptual framework.

Originality/value: This study is one of the earliest studies that advances firm-level adoption of chatbots by integrating two key organizational theories.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Katerina Berezina, Olena Ciftci and Cihan Cobanoglu

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to review and critically evaluate robots, artificial intelligence and service automation (RAISA) applications in the restaurant…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to review and critically evaluate robots, artificial intelligence and service automation (RAISA) applications in the restaurant industry to educate professors, graduate students, and industry professionals.

Design/methodology/approach: This chapter is a survey of applications of RAISA in restaurants. The chapter is based on the review of professional and peer-reviewed academic literature, and the industry insight section was prepared based on a 50-minute interview with Mr. Juan Higueros, Chief Operations Officer of Bear Robotics.

Findings: Various case studies presented in this chapter illustrate numerous possibilities for automation: from automating a specific function to complete automation of the front of the house (e.g., Eatsa) or back of the house (e.g., Spyce robotic kitchen). The restaurant industry has already adopted chatbots; voice-activated and biometric technologies; robots as hosts, food runners, chefs, and bartenders; tableside ordering; conveyors; and robotic food delivery.

Practical implications: The chapter presents professors and students with a detailed overview of RAISA in the restaurant industry that will be useful for educational and research purposes. Restaurant owners and managers may also benefit from reading this chapter as they will learn about the current state of technology and opportunities for RAISA implementation.

Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this chapter presents the first systematic and in-depth review of RAISA technologies in the restaurant industry.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

1 – 10 of 12