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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2012

Robin Spencer

Due to a misprint Figure 1 & 2 were incorrectly displayed in the original manuscript published in volume 4 issue 2; the following presents the corrected figures.

Abstract

Due to a misprint Figure 1 & 2 were incorrectly displayed in the original manuscript published in volume 4 issue 2; the following presents the corrected figures.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2016

Sara E. Green

The purpose of this paper is to highlight both the value and critiques of Erving Goffman’s conceptualization of stigma as well as the emotion work needed to learn the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight both the value and critiques of Erving Goffman’s conceptualization of stigma as well as the emotion work needed to learn the lessons it has to teach.

Methodology/approach

I use a personal narrative grounded in my experience as a member of the “wise” category (the mother of a young woman with cerebral palsy) and observations of the reactions of my disabled students as a vehicle for taking the reader inside the experience of the trials and tribulations of reading Goffman as a member of “marked” social categories and the more humanizing experience of reading Spencer Cahill’s work.

Findings

There remains much to be learned from reading Goffman’s Stigma. In many ways his work has set the stage for approaches to the study of disability that we are still discovering. Learning these lessons through is made difficult by the de-humanizing perspective Goffman brings to the work. He clearly locates himself and his readers in the category of “we the normals” who see the stigmatized as “not quite fully human.” For disabled students and scholars and their families, reading Goffman requires a good deal of emotion management. Reading Spencer Cahill’s work can help in that process. Goffman presents disabled students and scholars and their family members with confirmation of what we know to be true about our marked and not quite human status in the eyes of others and in the process gives us our “own.” Cahill helps us all see ourselves in the strangeness that is inside social life. There is great value in both.

Details

Sociology Looking at Disability: What Did We Know and When Did We Know it
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-478-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2010

Robin Spencer and Timothy Woods

Engaging hundreds or thousands of employees in challenges that address specific business needs is a well established innovation model. Large-scale idea generation is a key…

Abstract

Engaging hundreds or thousands of employees in challenges that address specific business needs is a well established innovation model. Large-scale idea generation is a key element of such challenges, and we have observed that it has remarkably consistent statistical properties across every challenge, company, and industry. It bears a strong analogy to the “long tail” that Chris Anderson recognized in electronic retail of books and music and shares its enabling economics. We propose that idea generation is driven by universal positive feedback properties which account for its observed power law form, scale independence, and dynamics of growth. Simulation reproduces these properties and suggests further details and consequences. These robust observations have significant impact on strategies in collaborative innovation.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Robin Spencer

In a large idea management system it is very useful to have a general purpose "ideas like this" capability. Such a tool can be used to define a distance between two ideas…

Abstract

In a large idea management system it is very useful to have a general purpose "ideas like this" capability. Such a tool can be used to define a distance between two ideas, and with a distance metric it is possible to explore the dimensionality and size of a space. Using feature-based Jaccard-Tanimoto similarity, we find that "idea space" is consistently about 14-dimensional regardless of the origin or specifics of the ideas, which has some practical consequences for the behavior and display of similarity search results. In addition, given a distance within which people judge ideas to be "practically identical", the size of the universe of ideas can (whimsically) be estimated at 6 billion ideas.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1982

Maintaining an adequate nutritional state, important at all times, is never more so than during the dark days of Winter. The body reserves are then taxed in varying…

Abstract

Maintaining an adequate nutritional state, important at all times, is never more so than during the dark days of Winter. The body reserves are then taxed in varying degrees of severity by sudden downward plunges of the thermometer, days when there is no sight of the sun, lashing rains and cold winds, ice, frost, snow, gales and blizzards. The body processes must be maintained against these onslaughts of nature — body temperatures, resistance against infections, a state of well‐being with all systems operating and an ability to “take it”. A sufficient and well balanced diet is vital to all this, most would say, the primarily significant factor. The National Food Surveys do not demonstrate any insufficiency in the national diet in terms of energy values, intake of vitamins, minerals and nutrients, but statistics can be fallacious amd misleading. NFS statistics are no indication of quality of food, its sufficiency for physiological purposes and to meet the economic stresses of the times. The intake of staple foods — bread, milk, butter, meat, &c., — have been slowly declining for years, as their prices rise higher and higher. If the Government had foreseen the massive unemployment problem, it is doubtful if they would have crippled the highly commendable School Meals Service. To have continued this — school milk, school dinners — even with the financial help it would have required would be seen as a “Supplementary Benefit” much better than the uncontrolled cash flow of social security. Child nutrition must be suffering. Stand outside a school at lunch‐time and watch the stream of children trailing along to the “Chippie” for a handfull of chip potatoes; even making a “meal” on an ice lollie.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 84 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1988

WHEN WE WERE nothing more than a small column, we learned that there were two kinds of Englishmen: the majority who were convinced that it was never necessary to learn a…

Abstract

WHEN WE WERE nothing more than a small column, we learned that there were two kinds of Englishmen: the majority who were convinced that it was never necessary to learn a foreign language, for all foreigners spoke English (or understood it provided you shouted loudly enough!) and a tiny minority who took the trouble to master at least one foreign tongue and to go to that country where it was used and sell British goods to them.

Details

Work Study, vol. 37 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

David J. Leonard

Although the commodification of black bodies amid state violence and widespread racism is nothing new, considering the histories of Hollywood, jazz, minstrelsy, or even…

Abstract

Although the commodification of black bodies amid state violence and widespread racism is nothing new, considering the histories of Hollywood, jazz, minstrelsy, or even athletes enslaved on plantations (Rhoden, 2006), the hyper commodification of the contemporary black athlete, alongside expansive processes of globalization, growth in the profitability of black bodies, and their importance within colorblind discourse, demonstrates the importance of commodification within our new racist moment. Likewise, the shrinking opportunities afforded to African American youth, alongside clear messages about the path to desired black masculinity (Neal, 2005; Watkins, 1998; West, 1994), push black youth into a sports world where the possibility of striking it rich leads to a “win at all costs” attitude. Robin Kelley argues that African American youth participate in sports or engage in other cultural practices as an attempt to resist or negotiate the inherent contradictions of post-industrial American capitalism (Kelley, 1998). Patricia Hill Collins describes this process in the following terms: “Recognizing that black culture was a marketable commodity, they put it up for sale, selling an essentialized black culture that white youth could emulate yet never own. These message was clear – ‘the world may be against us, but we are here and we intend to get paid’” (Collins, 2006, p. 298). Celia Lury concurs, noting that heightened levels of commodification embody a shift from a racial logic defined by scientific racism to one centering on cultural difference. She argues that commodity racism “has contributed to shifts in how racism operates, specifically to the shift from a racism tied to biological understandings of ‘race’ in which identity is fixed or naturalized to a racism in which ‘race’ is a cultural category in which racial identity is represented as a matter of style, and is the subject of choice” (Lury, 1996, p. 169; as quoted in Spencer, 2004, p. 123). In the context of new racism, as manifested in heightened levels of commodification of Othered bodies, racial identity is simply a choice, but a cultural marker that can be celebrated and sold, policed, or demonized with little questions about racial implications (Spencer, 2004, pp. 123–125). Blackness, thus, becomes little more than a culture style, something that can be sold on Ebay and tried on at the ball or some something that needs to be policed or driven out-of-existence. Race is conceptualized “as a matter of style, something that can be put on or taken off at will” (Willis as quoted in Spencer, 2004, p. 123). Collins notes further that the process of commodification is not simply about selling “an essentialized black culture,” but rather a particular construction of blackness that has proven beneficial to white owners. “Athletes and criminals alike are profitable, not for the vast majority of African American men, but for people who own the teams, control the media, provide food, clothing and telephone services, and who consume seemingly endless images of pimps, hustlers, rapists, and felons” (2006, p. 311). bell hooks, who describes this process as “eating the other,” sees profit and ideology as crucial to understanding the commodification of black bodies. “When race and ethnicity become commodified as resources for pleasure, the culture of specific groups, as well as the bodies of individuals, can be seen as constituting an alternative playground where members of dominating races…affirm their power-over in intimate relations with the other” (Hooks, 1992, p. 23). She, along with Collins, emphasizes the importance of sex and sexuality, within this processes of commodification, arguing that commodification of black male (and female) bodies emanates from and reproduces longstanding mythologies regarding black sexual power.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-785-7

Abstract

Details

Harm Production and the Moral Dislocation of Finance in the City of London: An Ethnography
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-495-8

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Martin J. Conyon and Mark R. Muldoon

In this chapter we investigate the ownership and control of UK firms using contemporary methods from computational graph theory. Specifically, we analyze a ‘small-world…

Abstract

In this chapter we investigate the ownership and control of UK firms using contemporary methods from computational graph theory. Specifically, we analyze a ‘small-world’ model of ownership and control. A small-world is a network whose actors are linked by a short chain of acquaintances (short path lengths), but at the same time have a strongly overlapping circle of friends (high clustering). We simulate a set of corporate worlds using an ensemble of random graphs introduced by Chung and Lu (2002a, 2002b). We find that the corporate governance network structures analyzed here are more clustered (‘clubby’) than would be predicted by the random-graph model. Path lengths, though, are generally not shorter than expected. In addition, we investigate the role of financial institutions: potentially important conduits creating connectivity in corporate networks. We find such institutions give rise to systematically different network topologies.

Details

Network Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1442-3

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Felix Septianto, Fandy Tjiptono and Denni Arli

Prior research suggests that consumers can engage in moral decoupling by separating their judgments of morality from their judgments of performance. Hence, they might…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research suggests that consumers can engage in moral decoupling by separating their judgments of morality from their judgments of performance. Hence, they might rationalize the benefits of unethical behavior without condoning the behavior itself. This paper aims to study how a discrete positive emotion, such as authentic pride, can mitigate moral decoupling.

Design/methodology/approach

Using three experimental studies, this research investigates and tests the underlying mechanism driving authentic pride, its effects and its key moderator. The results are analyzed using ANOVAs, regression-based serial mediation and moderated mediation analyses.

Findings

The results show that authentic pride decreases consumer acceptance of unethical behavior across different contexts, including purchase intentions for unethically manufactured products (Study 1), evaluations of the corporate social responsibility activities of a tobacco company (Study 2) and acceptance of questionable consumer behavior in daily situations (Study 3).

Research limitations/implications

This research explores attitudes and behavioral intentions as dependent variables. It would thus be of interest for future research to examine a behavioral measure.

Practical implications

Given the potential problems of moral decoupling among consumers, marketers can devise effective strategies to reduce this problem using authentic pride appeals.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates how authentic pride can decrease consumer acceptance of unethical behavior. More importantly, this research enriches our understanding of the underlying mechanism driving the influence of authentic pride such that it increases the belief in a just world, which in turn lowers moral decoupling (a serial mediation).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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