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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2019

Gabriel S. Ferreira, Tulio O. Guedes, Lucas F. Melo, Márcio S. Gonçalves and Roberto Pimentel

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, an evidence of damage is the presence of cracking. In order to evaluate the effect of damage on cracking pattern and natural…

Abstract

Purpose

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, an evidence of damage is the presence of cracking. In order to evaluate the effect of damage on cracking pattern and natural frequency in RC slabs, two of such structures with different dimensions and reinforcement ratios were tested, in which cracks were induced through application of static load, followed by modal tests using impact excitation. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The gradient of the fundamental natural frequency along the decay, the crack opening rate and also a global damage index based on changes of the fundamental natural frequency were evaluated.

Findings

The behaviour of the aforementioned gradient was distinct for both slabs, increasing monotonically with the cracking level for the slab with lowest reinforcement ratio, and increasing until 33 per cent of the collapse load and then decreasing afterwards for the slab with the highest ratio. Changes of the gradient were consistent with changes of the crack opening rate. Both results of gradient changes and cracking pattern brought evidence that the balance between open (old) and breathing (new) cracks differed between the slabs, and may be responsible for such differences.

Originality/value

Damage assessment in RC structures using vibration tests is mostly concentrated on beams. In this work, an advance is made by investigating slabs. The lack of a unique pattern of changes of the gradient implies that its absolute value is not generally suitable for the association with the damage level. However, the impact tests can be effectively used to detect early damage on slabs using this proposed parameter.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Roberto Battiti, Mauro Brunato and Filippo Battiti

Many hotels allocate guests to specific rooms immediately after reservation. This happens because individual rooms are sold (and there is no concept of room type) or…

Abstract

Purpose

Many hotels allocate guests to specific rooms immediately after reservation. This happens because individual rooms are sold (and there is no concept of room type) or because the assignment is done by hand at reservation or because of a connection with a channel manager, which is immediately fixing the room number after a reservation request. This early allocation is suboptimal, and it causes the unnecessary rejection of some reservations when the hotel has a high occupancy level. The purpose of this paper is to investigate different room allocation algorithms, including an optimal one (called RoomTetris), aiming at higher occupancy levels and profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on theoretical results and experimentation. The optimality or the proposed RoomTetris algorithm is demonstrated. Experiments are executed in different contexts, including realistic ones, through the adoption of a hotel simulator, to measure the improvements in the occupancy rate of the optimal and heuristic strategies with respect to random or sub-optimal assignments of rooms.

Findings

The main results are that smart allocation algorithms can greatly reduce the rejection rate (reservation requests which cannot be fit into the hotel room plan) and improve the occupancy level, the percentage of available rooms or beds sold for the various periods.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis can be extended by considering cancellations and overbookings. A second possibility to add flexibility in room allocation for hotels having more than one type of rooms is that the hotel can upgrade and offer a high-price room to the customer, which given an even large flexibility to fix rooms by shifting customers to other compatible types. In addition, more complex integrations with revenue management can also be considered, for cases in which the cost of a room depends on the number of guests.

Practical implications

Given that the difference in occupancy rate of the optimal algorithm is particularly large in high season and high-request periods, periods which are usually associated to higher rates and higher volumes, the proposed algorithm will improve the main financial performance indicators such as revenue per available room by an even bigger multiplier, depending on the hotel pricing policy. Because the room allocation process can be completely automated, the adoption of appropriate smart allocation algorithms represents a low-hanging fruit to be picked by efficient hotel managers.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge this is the first proposal of an optimal algorithm (with proof of optimality) for the considered problem.

研究目的

很多酒店, 特别是私人、家庭经营型、或者精品酒店, 在客人预定后立刻分派指定的房间给客人。这往往是因为独立房间售卖(没有特殊房型概念)或者因为客人在预定时, 工作人员手动指派房间, 亦或者是因为预订系统与渠道管理系统链接, 直接在预定后指派房间号。这种早期的分派程序是不优化的, 往往在酒店住房率高的时候, 会造成一些不必要的房间预定失败, 继而带来的利润损失。本论文旨在研究不同房间指派参数配置, 包括最优系统(RoomTetris), 使得酒店达到更高住房率的同时产生高利润。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用理论讨论和实验等研究方法, 并展示了提出的RoomTetris参数的最优性。本论文还将其参数放在不同的情景中做实验, 以显示其提高酒店针对随机或者次优化分派的最佳启发式策略中的住房率。

研究结果

研究结果表明智能型分派参数能够大大降低预定失败率(预定需求不能符合酒店房型供给), 并且提高住房率和利润。住房时间并不是必须的参数, 极具个性化服务, 比如让客人选房间号, 可能导致利润损失(因为最优房间分派无法实现), 房型的设计也应该参与到最优房间分派的效果中来。

研究理论限制/启示

预定取消和超额预定的情况也应该加入到分析中来。第二种对于拥有不止一种房型的酒店来说, 可能增加房间分派的情况在于为客人升级房型, 这样可以将客人转到其他适合房型以解决房间分派问题。此外, 更复杂系统兼容财务管理系统应该被考量, 有的时候, 房间的成本取决于客人的数量。

研究实践启示

由于最优算法的住房率区别在于旺季和高预定时段, 也就是高房间价格和高预定量, 本论文提出的最佳算法将提高主要财务指标, 比如RevPAR(平均客房收益)。由于房间分配系统可以完全实现自动化, 那么采用智能分派系统无疑是有效酒店管理中的优质选择。

研究原创性/价值

据作者所知, 此文章是首篇关于此类话题的研究优质算法(且被证实其最佳)。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2021

Fiona Macaulay

Abstract

Details

Transforming State Responses to Feminicide: Women's Movements, Law and Criminal Justice Institutions in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-566-0

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Book part
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…

Abstract

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.

Details

Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Benjamin Rosenthal and Flavia Cardoso

This paper discusses the evolving nature of the symbolic meaning of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Exploring the kratophanous power of soccer in Brazil, we seek to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper discusses the evolving nature of the symbolic meaning of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Exploring the kratophanous power of soccer in Brazil, we seek to explain how the relationship that Brazilians had with the 2014 FIFA World Cup reflects profound changes in a mutating society that has deep emotional connections with soccer but at the same time has started to reject the misuse of public resources and struggles to see corruption as a fact of life.

Methodology/approach

The authors conducted a netnography on Facebook communities and on Instagram, reviewed documentaries and short films, as well as press articles on the subject. Data was collected both retrospectively and concurrently. Analysis used open coding, moving up from the emic meanings extracted from the texts to an etic account of the phenomena (Cherrier & Murray, 2007; Thompson, 1997; Thompson & Haytko, 1997).

Findings

We argue that the duality of the Brazilian culture and the kratophanous power of soccer help understand the evolving nature of the relationship Brazilians had with the 2014 FIFA World Cup. We sustain that soccer in Brazil is viewed both as a sport – representing democracy and the hope of social mobility – and as an industry – echoing dissatisfaction with the status quo. Even if ideologically opposed to what the event represented, consumers were bound by very strong cultural connections built around soccer as a sport, a national passion. This changing nature of feelings and attitudes echoes marketplace tensions of a country passing through a democratization maturity process and of a culture in which its citizens find it easier to attempt to be many things at the same time than to take a stand.

Research limitations/implications

This research analyzes the role of social tensions and national passions in relation to a global industry (soccer) and a mega event (the FIFA World Cup). We have looked at the influence of macro cultural forces and tension forces in a sporting event as our findings cannot be understood outside the context of network-based power (Labrecque, vor dem Esche, Mathwick, Novak, & Hofacker, 2013) with Brazilians mobilizing the structure of social networks in favor of their contextual interests. The tense and dynamic political environment in which this research was conducted shed some light on why the #naovaitercopa changed its meaning overtime.

Originality/value

The context of this research contributes to the literature on boycotting (Kozinets & Handelman, 2004; Lee, Motion, & Conroy, 2009), considering that most previous studies had not extensively explored situations where protests arise, obtain significant engagement, yet end up being unsuccessful. We answers the call made by Izberk-Bilgin (2010) for understanding how and why consumer attitudes toward certain types of consumption may change overtime and we demonstrate how the FIFA World Cup possesses kratophanous power in Brazil, and how this characteristic, which is strongly rooted in local culture, contributed to the failure of the boycott.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-323-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Rocco Scolozzi and Roberto Poli

– This paper aims to present an overview of deep issues flanking the ideas of system and complexity, and an overview of the mentioned course as a proposal for systems thinking.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an overview of deep issues flanking the ideas of system and complexity, and an overview of the mentioned course as a proposal for systems thinking.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a discursive overview of systems and philosophical concepts related to the described course.

Findings

The review offers a perspective of a super-system that includes the students, the lecturers and the context of their interaction, in which one may recognize a relational framework for social learning of a systemic sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

The overview concerns only the actual intervention in the University of Trento.

Practical implications

The described concepts and related philosophical discussion may contribute to the integration of system thinking in the future studies.

Originality/value

The described intervention is a new Italian context and the integration of systems concepts with futures studies seems not to be commonly established.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Rita M. Gallardo

The purpose of this paper is to offer pointers to local government executives on the qualities of leadership that drive social innovation (SI) as well as locate the roles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer pointers to local government executives on the qualities of leadership that drive social innovation (SI) as well as locate the roles of leadership and participation in the output and outcome of SI. Further, the findings of the study can hopefully contribute to the discourse on leadership for a sustainable future.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of the study was to highlight the forms of participation among the actors in the different stages of SI, the qualities of the leaders that drove SI and the roles of leadership and participation in the output and outcome of SI. To answer the research questions, the researcher applied the case study research design and employed the grounded theory approach for data analysis and interpretation.

Findings

The cases showed leadership that encourages, as leadership qualities of the governors. These were manifested in terms of being empowering, giving the freehand, being goal-oriented, resource mobilizer, consultative and practicing both bottom-up and top-bottom approaches to make sure that the outputs are achieved, as well as having the qualities of a supportive leader. The cases showed all three employed forms of participation, as categorized by Lowndes et al. (2001). Government can indeed foster innovation when there is close involvement and participation of the workforce in innovation. Leadership and participation play a big role in achieving output and outcome of SI.

Originality/value

The study is a review of the unpublished dissertation by Gallardo (2014) at the National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas, Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo, Maria Wendiane Gueiros Gaspar, José Cláudio Garcia Lira Neto, Ana Maria Parente Garcia Alencar, Maria Lúcia Zanetti and Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

This paper aims to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the basis of three criteria. The diagnostic criteria adopted were those of the International…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the basis of three criteria. The diagnostic criteria adopted were those of the International Diabetes Federation, the National Cholesterol Education Program – Adult Treatment Panel III and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute..

Design/methodology/approach

A transversal study was undertaken with 691 university students in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2011-2013.

Findings

The prevalence of MetS varied considerably according to the criteria used, it being 4.1 per cent for the IDF, 0.7 per cent for the NCEP ATPIII and 1.7 per cent for the revised NCEP ATPIII. The criteria of the IDF presented reasonable agreement in relation to the NCEP ATP III (0.294) and revised NCEP ATP III (0.334). Moderate agreement was found between the NCEP ATPIII/revised NCEP ATPIII.

Originality/value

There is a need for a universal diagnostic criterion for MetS to obtain uniform and more reliable data for the elaboration of public health policies.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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