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There are both “Swedish” and “Japanese”models for the organization of final assembly. Discusses the theoreticaland historical background to these models and the main…
There are both “Swedish” and “Japanese” models for the organization of final assembly. Discusses the theoretical and historical background to these models and the main practical differences between them. Provides an empirical study based on action research conducted in the final assembly area of a Scottish electronics company. The aims of the research were to effect change in the company by applying just‐in‐time (JIT) assembly methods, and to observe the process of change and the consequences for production of the cellular approach to assembly and the formation of assembly teams. Two projects were undertaken. In the first, a JIT cell was built for the assembly of a new product; this cell and an existing, conventional flowline operated in parallel for a period. In the second, a work team was formed, consisting of the operators assembling an older product on a machine‐paced line; the members of this team were given a significantly higher level of work autonomy than before. Provides a detailed account of the two projects.
In the knowledge economy, where the business environment is characterised by turbulence and complexity, knowledge is the main source of creating both innovation and…
In the knowledge economy, where the business environment is characterised by turbulence and complexity, knowledge is the main source of creating both innovation and sustainable competitive advantage. This paper describes a conceptual model and an associated set of managerial and organising implications for the innovation‐led company. The question we are trying to answer is: which management and organising characteristics are necessary to manage innovation in the knowledge economy? The paper is based on in‐depth interviews of 32 CEOs and top executives in leading European organisations, 40 people known internationally for their ability to achieve and maintain a position among the top performers in their fields, and a “best practice study” of five leading international companies.
E‐Teaching as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education is of growing importance for educational theory and practice. Many universities and…
E‐Teaching as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education is of growing importance for educational theory and practice. Many universities and other higher education institutions use ICT to support teaching. However, there are contradicting opinions about the value and outcome of e‐teaching. This paper starts with a review of the literature on e‐teaching and uses this as a basis for distilling success factors for e‐teaching. It then discusses the case study of an e‐voting system used for giving student feedback and marking student presentations. The case study is critically discussed in the light of the success factors developed earlier. The conclusion is that e‐teaching, in order to be successful, should be embedded in the organisational and individual teaching philosophy.
The relationship between the size of state audit budgets, audit responsibilities, professional characteristics of staff, risk, and tax and expenditure limitations is…
The relationship between the size of state audit budgets, audit responsibilities, professional characteristics of staff, risk, and tax and expenditure limitations is explored. Bivariate relationships are examined and then a model is estimated which controls for size, complexity, financial risk factors, and political risk factors. This provides a framework for considering the incremental influence of specialized audit inputs. Both "brand names" and size have been used in past research to proxy for quality dimensions intended to differentiate the audit product provided by different suppliers. This research extends such work by considering characteristics of the auditing services as reflected by specific inputs and by using cost data rather than audit fee data. The states are observed to differ in their responses to financial and political factors by spending resources on peer review, continuing professional education, certifications of professional staff, and expertise in both the computer science area and in law. A positive association of cost and auditor differentiation, implicit in past audit fee literature is corroborated.
DURING the thirties, at a time when letterpress printing was a good deal cheaper than now, the profound unwillingness of a scholarly author to have his work reproduced by the so‐called near‐print processes would not get much of an argument from his editor. Even where it was demonstrable that production costs could be lowered, the author's fear that prestige and reviews—attention, in other words—flew out the window when near‐print came in the door was largely shared by both editor and publisher of our learned journals and monograph series.
As more companies and employees become involved in telecommuting, researchers and managers will need to understand the effects of this relatively new working arrangement…
As more companies and employees become involved in telecommuting, researchers and managers will need to understand the effects of this relatively new working arrangement on the work perceptions and behaviors of the individual telecommuter. The extant empirical literature provides mixed results and is limited by a lack of theory; consequently, neither researchers nor managers can rely on this literature for clear direction on how telecommuting will likely affect individual telecommuters. There is a critical need for theoretical frameworks to guide research on how telecommuting may affect the telecommuter’s job perceptions, working relations, and work outcomes. We present a multi-dimensional framework of telecommuting design, and focus on how telecommuting design may affect the telecommuter’s work environment and outcomes through its effects on the social system of the telecommuter, autonomy and self-management opportunities and requirements, and role boundaries, particularly in terms of the work and non-work interface. Our goal is to provide a framework to assist managers and researchers in systematically addressing questions of how to design telecommuting arrangements to maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential drawbacks.
As organizations seek to prosper in ever more complex and changing environments, they will require ever more sophisticated analysis and design tools. Current systems…
As organizations seek to prosper in ever more complex and changing environments, they will require ever more sophisticated analysis and design tools. Current systems analysis tools function well to identify hardware and software requirements – the mostly technical elements of systems – but are less well suited to address the human component, an understanding of which is crucial to successful organizational analysis and design. The best technically designed system can easily fail when human factors are not explicitly included. The authors show how a combination of systems analysis and communication auditing methods can jointly optimize both the social and technical elements of organizations as they undergo design or business process re‐engineering. As a result of this joint optimization, the authors maintain that systems analysis tools are enriched and thereby enable system designers to explicitly include human and organizational communication factors into an information or business system. A theoretical model and implementation examples are provided.
– The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected bibliography of recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected bibliography of recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.
Introduces and annotates periodical articles, monographs, and audiovisual material examining library instruction and information literacy.
Provides information about each source, discusses the characteristics of current scholarship, and describes sources that contain unique scholarly contributions and quality reproductions.
The information may be used by librarians and interested parties as a quick reference to literature on library instruction and information literacy.
Observational learning within the leadership development of managers is under-theorized thus far. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical argument that…
Observational learning within the leadership development of managers is under-theorized thus far. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical argument that builds out from a relational leadership perspective to center on processes affecting observational learning.
The contribution is to draw together research to build a holistic model of observational learning. A further contribution is to apply this model to the context of leadership development.
The paper examines processes associated with attention, availability, access, attainability, motivation and social comparison with significant others in particular contexts. The paper takes a temporal perspective to examine the ways that such interaction appears to be most prominent at particular times.
The paper concludes by outlining the opportunities for applying this understanding of observational leadership learning within management development arenas and explore future directions for research.
Observational learning has been relatively overlooked. Though the authors often “know” that leaders develop through experience, the role of observational learning in this experience is not well understood. This paper is intended to provide a stimulus for exploring this important area in terms of shaping thinking and designs for management development interventions.
It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.