The privatization of State Owned Enterprises (SOE) has significant implications for SOE stakeholders. However, the effects on stakeholders will vary depending on…
The privatization of State Owned Enterprises (SOE) has significant implications for SOE stakeholders. However, the effects on stakeholders will vary depending on characteristics of the privatization process and the structure of the SOE. This paper identifies privatization process characteristics of wealth creation and wealth distribution, and describes SOE structures on a continuum between government corporation and government agency. The privatization effectiveness for stakeholders is discussed and examples provided for each classification of privatization.
To the initiate in French studies, the term “French Literature” might be understood to mean anything — and everything — written in the French language. Etymologists would no doubt support this interpretation wholeheartedly. To scholars of French literature, however, the term has a very different meaning. Professors in the field generally consider French literature to be that written in France since the Middle Ages, a literature which stands apart from other written works in the French language. This is not to say that there is not a very substantial body of literature written, for instance, in French‐speaking Canada, or Algeria, Tunisia, Haiti, or a myriad of other places. Certain individuals specialize in the literature (French) of those countries, but they do not refer to those writings as “French Literature”; they label them “French‐Canadian Literature,” “French‐African Literature,” and the like. This essay will be limited to a discussion of French literature — the major literature of France, considered worthy of special attention or acclaim by readers and scholars worldwide.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze the content of influential wine blogs.
The study used content analysis software, Leximancer, to analyze the entire contents of five influential amateur wine blogs.
A key finding is that these blogs all balance self-promotion with the content of their blogs, namely, wine and wine-related topics. The wine blogs, though evaluating wines in different ways, review not only the product attributes but also the experience surrounding wine.
Limitations of this study include that the analysis only included five wine blogs and the content analysis was conducted by a sole researcher using a computerized approach.
Wine blogs have increasing influence in the wine industry, especially those written by amateur wine bloggers. As such, understanding the tactics used by wine bloggers is of interest to practitioners who aim to market their wines using such channels as well as providing insight into this contemporary platform for current and aspiring wine critics.
This is the first content analysis study that analyzes the content of wine blogs as the readers themselves see it. It provides insights of value not only to those involved in marketing in the wine industry but also to those interested in the developments of amateur blogs in marketing.
Sports’ team websites are the front door to their relationship management programs with teams’ fan bases. As such, consumer attitudes toward these websites are a vital and…
Sports’ team websites are the front door to their relationship management programs with teams’ fan bases. As such, consumer attitudes toward these websites are a vital and important measure for the success of a team's CRM program. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptualization and development of a four‐item unidimensional measure of attitude toward the Website.
The data were collected via a pen and paper survey at a professional hockey event in the USA. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using generalized structural component analysis GeSCA www.sem‐gesca.org/. The scale's face, convergent, predictive and discriminant validity are all empirically demonstrated via regression and correlation.
The measure is shown to meet the four criteria for validation for positivist research in information systems set by Straub, Boudreau and Gefen in 2004. The internal consistency is assessed by Cronbach's alpha (0.917) as is the unidimensionality, which was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The study develops a four item measure, attitude toward the website, that addresses both the affective and cognitive components of attitudes. The scale is shown to have predictive and discriminant validity.
Data were collected via a convenience sample at one professional sporting event and represents the fan base and the attitude toward that team's website. The significant implication is that it provides researchers with a unidimensional measure of attitude toward the website. The scale is parsimonious and will benefit researchers exploring the impact of attitudes toward websites on a variety of constructs such as brands, sales and site visits.
The paper is important because it provides a new measure of attitude toward the website and because it demonstrates the use of generalized structural component analysis.
Hypotheses regarding gender differences in circumstances surrounding the initiation/escalation of binge drinking are tested in a sample of young adults from a general…
Hypotheses regarding gender differences in circumstances surrounding the initiation/escalation of binge drinking are tested in a sample of young adults from a general population. The circumstances are measured by six scales. Multiple regression analyses suggest a congruence between observed gender differences in circumstances surrounding initiation and escalation of binge drinking and the literature on gender‐related sociodevelopmental processes: For males, initiation of binge drinking is associated with self‐importance, to be influenced by peers, and to experience confrontation with the authorities. For females, initiation of binge drinking is associated with greater feelings of distress and interpersonal problems. For escalation of binge drinking, no gender effect on peer influence is observed. However, all other gender‐related effects continue to be observed at even greater levels. The results also support the conclusion that the gender‐related effects are at least partially independent although certain of the effects are attenuated when other circumstances are included in the model.
I study the relationship between pro-market reforms and the expansion of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). Extending institutional economics, I propose a…
I study the relationship between pro-market reforms and the expansion of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). Extending institutional economics, I propose a co-evolutionary process, whereby pro-market reforms in emerging markets induce the transformation of domestic firms into EMNCs, and the global expansion of EMNCs in turn facilitates the deepening of pro-market reforms in the home country. Specifically, I first explain how pro-market reforms lead to the emergence of EMNCs via international competitiveness, upgrading needs, and escape; I then explain how the global expansion of EMNCs leads to a deepening of pro-market reforms at home via learning, spillovers, and lobbying. I complement these explanations with a discussion of contingencies at the firm (private vs. state, domestic vs. foreign firms), industry (global vs. local industries), and country (developing vs. transition countries) levels.
An appeal under the Food and Drugs Acts, reported in the present number of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, is an apt illustration of the old saying, that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. In commenting upon the case in question, the Pall Mall Gazette says: “The impression among the great unlearned that the watering of the morning's milk is a great joke is ineradicable; and there is also a common opinion among the Justice Shallows of the provincial bench that the grocer who tricks his customers into buying coffee which is 97 per cent. chicory is a clever practitioner, who ought to be allowed to make his way in the world untrammelled by legal obstructions. But the Queen's Bench have rapped the East Ham magistrates over the knuckles for convicting without fining a milkman who was prosecuted by the local authority, and the case has been sent back in order that these easygoing gentlemen may give logical effect to their convictions.”
THE Scot, I have noticed in international gatherings, is peculiarly liable to be chaffed about his country. One reason is the association of Scotland with whisky and the kilt. Another reason is the Scot's self‐consciousness about Scotland. When he hears it derided, he gives a wry smile, or enters on a flustered defence. Praise of Scotland specially annoys him, because it is generally praise of the wrong things,—and he is not quite sure what are the right things.