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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Ian M. Johnson, Dorothy A. Williams, Caroline Wavell and Graeme Baxter

This paper examines the relationship between research into the evaluation of the impact of library and information services, policy making in the field, and professional…

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between research into the evaluation of the impact of library and information services, policy making in the field, and professional practice and education. The paper first summarises the background to a recent critical literature review undertaken on behalf of Resource: the Council on Museums, Archives and Libraries. The review was intended to identify any published evidence that Museums, Archives and Libraries are making a contributory impact to developments in the British Government’s key policy areas. Except in the field of learning, little supporting evidence was found. Methodological weakness undermined the validity of much of the related work identified by the review. After considering approaches to ensuring the impact of research on policy making, including a more appropriate publication strategy and greater face‐to‐face dialogue, the paper discusses the attitudes of LIS practitioners towards academic research and the need for closer collaboration. Finally, the paper speculates on some of the implications for LIS educators in developing future researchers better equipped to identify the contribution that libraries make, and more effective in influencing policy makers.

Details

New Library World, vol. 105 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2019

Robert Williams and Monica Wallace

The purpose of this paper is primarily to identify factors that accounted for the differences in course evaluation and course performance in two sections of the same…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is primarily to identify factors that accounted for the differences in course evaluation and course performance in two sections of the same course taught by the same instructor. Potential contributors to these differences included critical thinking, grade point average (GPA) and homework time in the course. Secondarily, the authors also examined whether season of the year and academic status of students (1st year through 3rd year) might have contributed to differences in course ratings and exam performance. The data in the study included some strictly quantitative variables and some qualitative judgments subsequently converted to quantitative measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The outcome variables included student objective exam scores and course ratings on the University’s eight-item rating form. Variables that may have contributed to performance and course evaluation differences between the two groups included student effort in the course, GPA and critical thinking.

Findings

The higher-performing section obtained significantly higher scores on course exams than the lower-preforming group and also rated the course significantly higher (average of 4.15 across the evaluation items) than the lower performing section (3.64 average in item ratings). The two performance groups did not differ on critical thinking and GPA, but did differ significantly in hours spent per week outside of class in studying for the course.

Originality/value

Although many studies have examined the predictive validity of course ratings, instructors are typically held responsible for both high and low student ratings. This particular action study suggests that it may be student effort rather than instructor behavior that has the stronger impact on both student performance and course evaluations.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Noor Abdullah Al Mortadi, Dominic Eggbeer, Jeffrey Lewis and Robert Williams

The purpose of this study is to develop and apply clinically relevant methods of analysing the accuracy of dental appliances fabricated using additive manufacture (AM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and apply clinically relevant methods of analysing the accuracy of dental appliances fabricated using additive manufacture (AM) compared to the computer-aided design (CAD) geometry. The study also compared fit between conventionally laboratory-fabricated and AM-produced base plates.

Design/methodology/approach

The techniques were applied to two types of dental devices where AM fabrication methods could foreseeably be used as an alternative to laboratory production. “L” and cubic shapes of defined dimensions and spatial locations were positioned on the devices which were fabricated using AM. For assessing the dimensions, the “L” and cubic shapes were then measured on the physical builds ten times and compared to the CAD model. To assess the fit of AM and lab-produced devices, three upper and three lower conventionally fabricated acrylic base plates were compared to three upper and three lower plates. Silicone impression material was allowed to set between the casts and the base plates which filled any discrepancy between the two surfaces. The thickness of this silicone media was measured ten times at five different points on each base plate type and the results compared.

Findings

The results indicated that the evaluated CAD/AM technique is able to produce dental appliance components that are consistent with tolerance levels that would be expected with conventional methods of baseplate design. This research demonstrated that a fully CAD/AM methodology represents a potentially viable alternative to conventional lab-based methods for two types of dental appliances.

Originality/value

This work is original. The authors do not believe any previous papers similar to the one submitted have been published.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Brian R. Hopkins and Robert L. Williams

The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Ohio University has designed, constructed, and controlled a new 6‐dof in‐parallel‐actuated platform, a combination and…

Abstract

The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Ohio University has designed, constructed, and controlled a new 6‐dof in‐parallel‐actuated platform, a combination and modification of existing designs. The 6‐PSU platform consists of six legs with a prismatic joint, spherical joint, and universal joint connecting links in each leg which move the platform in the six Cartesian freedoms with respect to the base. The prismatic joint is actuated while the other two joints in each leg are passive. The six prismatic joints move vertically with respect to the base, which appears to be a big improvement over the standard Gough/Stewart platform. Experimental results from the Ohio University manipulator are presented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

O. Gene Norman

In the spring of 1982, I published an article in Reference Services Review on marketing libraries and information services. The article covered available literature on…

Abstract

In the spring of 1982, I published an article in Reference Services Review on marketing libraries and information services. The article covered available literature on that topic from 1970 through part of 1981, the time period immediately following Kotler and Levy's significant and frequently cited article in the January 1969 issue of the Journal of Marketing, which was first to suggest the idea of marketing nonprofit organizations. The article published here is intended to update the earlier work in RSR and will cover the literature of marketing public, academic, special, and school libraries from 1982 to the present.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2014

Warwick Funnell and Robert Williams

The paper aims to extend research which has sought to explain Britain's early success as an industrial power by identifying the influence of religious doctrine of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to extend research which has sought to explain Britain's early success as an industrial power by identifying the influence of religious doctrine of the Dissenting Protestant churches on the development of accounting practices in the factory. The concern is not with specific accounting practices but with the social and moral environment which provided the incentives and permissions that encouraged late eighteenth century English industrialists to develop the practices that they used.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the highly influential writings of social theorists such Weber, Sombart and Tawney to identify the religious doctrines that both motivated and justified the rational, ideological business practices of prominent businessmen.

Findings

The rise of accounting as a powerful tool of control and discipline was significantly assisted by the teaching of the Dissenting Protestant churches on “calling”. Religious beliefs provided permissions, justifications and incentives which underpinned the entrepreneurial energies, opportunities and successes of the early industrialists. Accounting could be seen to assume almost the aura and nascent legitimacy of a religious practice, a means of sanctifying practices which were otherwise reviled by social elites.

Originality/value

Despite encouragement from accounting researchers for histories of accounting which give greater credence to the reflexivity between accounting and society, this has yet to find a significant presence amongst the searches for beginnings in cost accounting where economic and management factors remain the overwhelming focus. Religious beliefs are shown to have been especially influential in the adoption of accounting practices by early industrialists who were frequently members of the Dissenting Protestant churches.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1978

Robert Williams

The NMHC has developed costing techniques for distribution in the food and grocery trade which provide a pattern for any company to conduct a thorough cost audit in order…

Abstract

The NMHC has developed costing techniques for distribution in the food and grocery trade which provide a pattern for any company to conduct a thorough cost audit in order to make an appraisal of its distribution performance in warehousing and transport. Robert Williams delivered an extended version of the following survey to a recent conference of the Institute of Practitioners in Work Study, Organisation and Methods, giving an outline of the Centre's approach to costing, the order of costs and typical performance levels which they found. A second part, to be published in the May/June issue of RDM, will identify the main factors affecting cost, and make some practical suggestions for their reduction.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1978

Robert Williams

In the last issue of RDM, Robert Williams outlined a model cost audit of a distribution system. In this second part, he demonstrates how such a cost audit can identify the…

Abstract

In the last issue of RDM, Robert Williams outlined a model cost audit of a distribution system. In this second part, he demonstrates how such a cost audit can identify the major factors affecting costs, and makes some practical suggestions towards their reduction. What appears on the following pages was delivered in an extended form to a recent conference in London of the Institute of Practitioners in Work Study, Organisation and Methods.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mark Tausig and Rudy Fenwick

The “Social Determinants of Health” construct is well-entrenched in the way that both health care providers and researchers think about the effects of social conditions on…

Abstract

Purpose

The “Social Determinants of Health” construct is well-entrenched in the way that both health care providers and researchers think about the effects of social conditions on health. Although there are a number of theories that fall under this rubric for the social production of health and illness, the core of this construct is the idea that social stratification leads to health disparity. In this chapter we show how such a mechanism might work for relating social stratification and job stress.

Methodology/approach

We used the pooled 2002, 2006, 2010 Quality of Work Life modules of the General Social Survey to test a model of the relationships between gender, age, education, and nativity with “bad jobs” and indicators of health status.

Findings

Findings show that social status is positively associated with job quality and with health in turn. Lower social status characteristics are related to bad jobs and poorer health.

Research limitations/implications

Health disparities are thus “explained” by the consequences of social status for occupation and job quality, thereby depicting exactly how health disparities arise in normal social life. The theory and results underscore the importance of explicitly modeling social status factors in explanations of health disparities.

Social implications

It is common to relate health disparities to social status but it is not common to show the mechanisms whereby social status actually produces health disparities. Addressing health disparities means addressing the consequences of social inequalities for normal activities of social life such as work. Improving job quality would be a health “treatment” that addresses health disparities.

Originality/value

This chapter demonstrates the value of explicitly tracing the consequences of status differences on differences in social context such as work conditions and then health. In the study of health disparities this is not often done. In this chapter we show how social inequality leads to occupational and job quality differences that, in turn, lead to health differences.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Lynn Weber and Deborah Parra-Medina

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of…

Abstract

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of color address the same fundamental questions: Why do health disparities exist? Why have they persisted over such a long time? What can be done to significantly reduce or eliminate them?

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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