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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Robert W. Herdt and Rebecca Nelson

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…

Abstract

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.

In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.

Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Margaret M Barwick

Interlending activities in various countries, particularly inacademic libraries, are examined. The growth of networking and theimportance of a strong infrastructure are…

Abstract

Interlending activities in various countries, particularly in academic libraries, are examined. The growth of networking and the importance of a strong infrastructure are discussed. A system of cost recovery for large net‐lenders is outlined. Developments in copyright are reviewed.

Details

Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Kenneth Hsien Yung Chung and Peter Adriaens

This paper aims to quantify the impact of environmental contamination on farmland valuation. It applies data fusion and hedonic pricing approaches to quantify the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the impact of environmental contamination on farmland valuation. It applies data fusion and hedonic pricing approaches to quantify the contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus loading on farmland sales transactions. It further suggests approaches to improve internalization of environmental cost in valuation approaches using shadow pricing. The work informs the field of environmental, social and governance (ESG) investing by fusing environmental data with financial transactions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an empirical study implementing hedonic pricing of farmland in the Lake Huron major drainage area. Data sources and fusion were derived from AcreValue, the United States Department of Agriculture's Gridded Soil Survey Geographic database (gSSURGO) and the United States Geological Survey's Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes database (SPARROW).

Findings

The results suggest that environmental contamination has statistically significant positive determination power on farmland prices such that prices increase with contamination. Conventional metrics such as percentage of cultivated land in the parcel, root zone depth, whether the parcel is designated by the Natural Resource Conservation Service as prime farmland, and the size of the farmland parcel contribution to farmland value as well. The results indicate that environmental impacts are not accurately accounted for in farmland transactions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper points to inaccurate valuation of environmental contamination in farmland value. While geocoding allowed for positioning of farmland sales transactions relative to modeled areas of contaminant loading in the Lake Huron drainage area, the interpretation indicates that value is driven by cultivation. Hence, generalization to other areas needs a cautious approach. Empirical testing across locations and drainage areas with diverse farmland features will serve to verify the modeled data used in this study.

Practical implications

The lack of integration of externalities in land valuation has implications on lending and disclosure practices, as financial service providers increasingly seek to account for ESG risk on their loan books and broader investment portfolios. The impact of farmland accounting practices for contamination such as shadow pricing may impact land valuation based on future cash flows, and may serve to inform sustainability-linked lending practices to farm operations.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to fuse data from AcreValue, gSSURGO and SPARROW to discover the explanatory power of nutrient contamination in farmland value in the Lake Huron major drainage area.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Stephen Billett

The workplace is now commonly used as a setting for acquiringvocational knowledge. This situated approach to learning offers accessto authentic vocational activities and…

3556

Abstract

The workplace is now commonly used as a setting for acquiring vocational knowledge. This situated approach to learning offers access to authentic vocational activities and the guidance of more expert others. However, questions about the effectiveness of workplace learning processes need to be addressed. These questions are central to the evaluation and improvement of learning arrangements which aim to develop vocational skills. Draws on the findings of three recent studies of workplace learning conducted in Queensland, Australia, in order to address questions about the efficacy of workplace learning. Uses these studies to understand further potential and limitations of these learning arrangements.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Stephen Billett

Arguing against a concept of learning as only a formal process occurring in explicitly educational settings like schools, the paper proposes a conception of the workplace…

16677

Abstract

Arguing against a concept of learning as only a formal process occurring in explicitly educational settings like schools, the paper proposes a conception of the workplace as a learning environment focusing on the interaction between the affordances and constraints of the social setting, on the one hand, and the agency and biography of the individual participant, on the other. Workplaces impose certain expectations and norms in the interest of their own continuity and survival, and in the interest of certain participants; but learners also choose to act in certain ways dependent on their own preferences and goals. Thus, the workplace as a learning environment must be understood as a complex negotiation about knowledge‐use, roles and processes – essentially as a question of the learner's participation in situated work activities.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Stephen Billett

Reports and discusses the findings of an investigation that examined the efficacy of guided learning in the workplace. The investigation comprised the trialing of guided…

6053

Abstract

Reports and discusses the findings of an investigation that examined the efficacy of guided learning in the workplace. The investigation comprised the trialing of guided learning strategies and an analysis of the learning occurring in five workplaces over a period of six months. The guided learning strategies selected for investigation were questioning dialogues, the use of diagrams and analogies within an approach to workplace learning emphasising modelling and coaching. Throughout the investigation, critical incident interviews were conducted to identify the contributions to learning that had occurred during these periods, including those provided by the guided learning. As anticipated, it was found that participation in everyday work activities (the learning curriculum) was most valued and reported as making effective contributions to learning in the workplace. However, there was also correlation between reports of the frequency of guided learning interactions and their efficacy in resolving novel workplace tasks, and therefore learning. It is postulated that some of these learning outcomes could not have been secured by everyday participation in the workplace alone. Further, factors associated with the readiness of enterprise and those within it were identified as influencing the likely effectiveness of guided learning at work.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Stephen Billett

Examines the acquisition of vocational skills throughapprenticeship‐type situated learning. Presents findings from studies ofskilled workers revealing that learning…

1242

Abstract

Examines the acquisition of vocational skills through apprenticeship‐type situated learning. Presents findings from studies of skilled workers revealing that learning processes that were consonant with the apprenticeship model of learning were highly valued as a means of acquiring and maintaining vocational skills. Supported by current research and theorizing, describes some conditions by which situated learning through apprenticeship can be utilized to develop vocational skills. These conditixons include the nature of the activities learners engage in, the agency of the learning environment and mentoring role of experts. Addresses conditions which may inhibit the effectiveness of an apprenticeship approach to learning. Concludes by suggesting that situated approaches to learning, such as the apprenticeship model, may address problems of access to effective vocational skill development within the workforces.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 26 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Mirjam Körner, Corinna Lippenberger, Sonja Becker, Lars Reichler, Christian Müller, Linda Zimmermann, Manfred Rundel and Harald Baumeister

Knowledge integration is the process of building shared mental models. The integration of the diverse knowledge of the health professions in shared mental models is a…

3169

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge integration is the process of building shared mental models. The integration of the diverse knowledge of the health professions in shared mental models is a precondition for effective teamwork and team performance. As it is known that different groups of health care professionals often tend to work in isolation, the authors compared the perceptions of knowledge integration. It can be expected that based on this isolation, knowledge integration is assessed differently. The purpose of this paper is to test these differences in the perception of knowledge integration between the professional groups and to identify to what extent knowledge integration predicts perceptions of teamwork and team performance and to determine if teamwork has a mediating effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a multi-center cross-sectional study with a descriptive-explorative design. Data were collected by means of a staff questionnaire for all health care professionals working in the rehabilitation clinics.

Findings

The results showed that there are significant differences in knowledge integration within interprofessional health care teams. Furthermore, it could be shown that knowledge integration is significantly related to patient-centered teamwork as well as to team performance. Mediation analysis revealed partial mediation of the effect of knowledge integration on team performance through teamwork.

Practical/implications

In practice, the results of the study provide a valuable starting point for team development interventions.

Originality/value

This is the first study that explored knowledge integration in medical rehabilitation teams and its relation to patient-centered teamwork and team performance.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Stephen Billett

Apprenticeships are now usually seen as a model of education focused on occupational preparation, albeit manifested in different ways across nation states. However…

2032

Abstract

Purpose

Apprenticeships are now usually seen as a model of education focused on occupational preparation, albeit manifested in different ways across nation states. However, throughout human history, the majority of occupational preparation has been premised upon apprenticeship as a mode of learning. That is, a preparation arising mainly through apprentices’ active and interdependent engagement in their work, rather than being taught or directly guided by more experienced practitioners. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of literature.

Findings

A way of considering apprenticeship as a mode of learning as well as a model of education.

Research limitations/implications

Three elements of considering and supporting apprenticeship as a mode of learning.

Practical implications

Practice curriculum, practice pedagogies and personal epistemology.

Social implications

A way of considering apprenticeship as a mode of learning as well as a model of education.

Originality/value

A way of considering apprenticeship as a mode of learning as well as a model of education.

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