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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Robert Sparks and Melissa Westgate

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that analyzed use of traditional and targeted sponsorship approaches by eight companies involved in the 1998-99…

Abstract

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that analyzed use of traditional and targeted sponsorship approaches by eight companies involved in the 1998-99 Canadian Hockey Association women's corporate support program. The study found the sponsors used methods from direct and relationship marketing to support corporate goals of sales, advertising, community-involvement and brand image and awareness. Several factors are discussed that would improve the sponsorships' effectiveness in the women's market.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Janet Hoek and Robert Sparks

The promotion of tobacco products has received detailed attention. However, this research has focussed on the effects of tobacco advertising or sponsorship, and how…

Abstract

The promotion of tobacco products has received detailed attention. However, this research has focussed on the effects of tobacco advertising or sponsorship, and how restrictions on promotion activities affect demand. By contrast, comparatively few studies have examined the regulatory implications of variations in the guidelines or statutes governing tobacco promotions. In this paper we analyse the issues arising from inconsistencies in international tobacco promotion regulations and the proposals designed to address these. We conclude that because the development and application of consistent regulations infringes on the economic interests and traditions of civil liberties in some nations, the prospects for implementing internationally adhered to protocols is gloomy. A more practical solution may be to control the conditions of sale of tobacco products as these are more readily circumscribed by domestic regulation.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Shelby D. Hunt

The purpose of this paper is to provide a personal retrospective on six of the key events/experiences that influenced the development of the structure, foundational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a personal retrospective on six of the key events/experiences that influenced the development of the structure, foundational premises, and models of the resource‐advantage theory of competition.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a personal retrospective approach.

Findings

The paper finds that six key events influenced the development of resource‐advantage theory: B.J. “Bud” LaLonde emphasizes the works of Alderson; Rob Morgan suggests an article on the resource‐based theory of the firm; Roy Howell suggests a presentation on R‐A theory; Randy Sparks shows a “socialist calculation” article; Kim Boal suggests the Journal of Management Inquiry as a publication outlet; and Bob Phillips discusses his work on “firm effects vs industry effects”. The paper then relates each of the six events to the paths, routes, or procedures that are often proposed as (or reported to be) likely to lead to the development of theories.

Originality/value

By providing the evolutionary history of resource‐advantage theory, the paper provides implications for developing marketing theories.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2007

Simon C. Darnell and Robert Sparks

This paper critically examines the processes of meaning creation and transfer in sports celebrity endorsements. It uses findings from a qualitative case study that…

Abstract

This paper critically examines the processes of meaning creation and transfer in sports celebrity endorsements. It uses findings from a qualitative case study that investigated how Canadian journalists covered Simon Whitfield's gold medal win in the inaugural men's triathlon Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, and how sponsors subsequently capitalised on his media image. The results highlight key factors that influence Olympic sports reporting and their implications for leveraging an Olympic athlete's media image as part of a product endorsement strategy.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Robert Sparks

Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and…

Abstract

Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and communicating positive brand information to children(28,31,32). Research on tobacco sponsorship effects on children is as yet inconclusive, but growing evidence suggests that sponsorship is an effective medium for building cigarette brand awareness and image among under‐aged youth. Research in this area has been inconclusive in part because it lacks a unified framework in which the various contributions of sponsorship to brand knowledge and use can be analysed holistically. This paper proposes that the brand equity concept(1,2,18) provides such a framework. The paper reviews previous research on tobacco sponsorship and children, and presents findings from a study that assessed the relative contribution of sponsorship to brand awareness among fourteen year‐olds (n=366) in Dunedin, New Zealand. The value of sponsorship‐derived cigarette brand knowledge among youth is expressed in terms of Keller's(18) concept of customer‐based brand equity. The study found that children's awareness of tobacco brands and tobacco sponsorships varied according to their smoking experience, sports interests and gender. Cigarette brands with the strongest event associations were those that sponsored events that had a high appeal for the youth in the study. The brands with the highest unaided recall levels were those that were prominently shown in point of purchase displays in stores frequented by the youth, and included those with the highest sponsorship profiles. The research demonstrates that tobacco companies can achieve significant brand recall among children through sport sponsorship, as well as interest‐based (lifestyle) segmentation and targeting benefits, and brand positioning (personality) benefits. The findings have implications for public policy and industry practice. In policy terms, if the goal of tobacco advertising prohibitions is to denormalise smoking by restricting the positive promotional imagery of cigarettes, then sport sponsorship and point of purchase displays need to be incorporated into advertising legislation. In terms of industry practice, the fact that tobacco sponsorship reaches and influences under‐aged youth stands to be a matter of concern for any entity that does not want this social burden. It is recommended that corporations considering involvement in a tobacco‐sponsored event should evaluate the reach of the event and the potential effects of its promotions on youth. Where a youth‐interest connection has been demonstrated for the event, corporations should weigh the social risks and costs of the sponsorship. For non‐tobacco related entities these costs include the potential negative impacts of tobacco‐linked event cross‐promotions on their own brands and corporate image.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1966

Robert Spark

The introduction of second generation jets on world air routes, and the progress being made with supersonic jet transport, have focused attention on developments in…

Abstract

The introduction of second generation jets on world air routes, and the progress being made with supersonic jet transport, have focused attention on developments in aircraft interiors. These developments also raise the question of the importance of interior design in the success of a modern airliner, and the extent to which the influence of soundly engineered and designed interiors in the British and American aircraft industries is reflected in the sales of civil aircraft over the last 10 years. If factual answers to these points are not easily obtainable, there is one thing that is quite certain: interior design is vital to the success of an aircraft, in both its purchase and its subsequent operation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Timothy Dewhirst and Robert Sparks

The purpose of this paper is to assess, by providing a case study of flagship brand, Rothmans, why Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc. (RBH), Canada's second largest tobacco…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess, by providing a case study of flagship brand, Rothmans, why Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc. (RBH), Canada's second largest tobacco firm, has historically lost ground to industry leader, Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited (ITL).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes data from internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, as well as trade press and promotional materials accessed from advertising archives. More specifically, the tobacco industry documents reviewed were made public from two Canadian trials: the 1989 Canadian trial to decide the constitutionality of the Tobacco Products Control Act; and the 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial in which Canada's three major tobacco firms challenged the constitutionality of the Tobacco Act.

Findings

The declining market share of Rothmans is largely explained by the brand's inability to appeal to the highly valued youth or “health concerned” segments. RBH failed to link the cigarette brand consistently with segment‐appropriate imagery during a time when legislation prompted a shift in promotional spending by the Canadian tobacco industry towards sponsorship communications. Unlike ITL, RBH failed to capitalize on the potential of sponsorship to contemporize the Rothmans brand and make it relevant to younger smokers. Moreover, RBH was slow to introduce a so‐called “light” line extension, which would appeal to existing smokers with health concerns.

Originality/value

This study should particularly interest researchers and practitioners interested in marketing and public policy, in which insight is provided about unique challenges to marketing in Canada on the basis of government regulation.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

It was Ralph Waldo Emerson who once said that every wall is a door. Unfortunately, this positive outlook on organizational opportunity and creativity is still too rarely…

Abstract

It was Ralph Waldo Emerson who once said that every wall is a door. Unfortunately, this positive outlook on organizational opportunity and creativity is still too rarely adopted. According to Robert I. Sutton, the root of the problem lies in the fact that managers back off when they discover exactly what creativity demands – significantly different practices from routine work which often seem risky and sometimes plain wrong.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1929

10. When the appointment of a Public Analyst is submitted for the Minister's approval, particulars of the appointment should be given on a form to be obtained from the Department.

Abstract

10. When the appointment of a Public Analyst is submitted for the Minister's approval, particulars of the appointment should be given on a form to be obtained from the Department.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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