Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

John Philip O'Connor

The aim of this paper is to examine how the “colleen” archetype was used in the creation of a successful brand personality for a range of soap manufactured in Ireland…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine how the “colleen” archetype was used in the creation of a successful brand personality for a range of soap manufactured in Ireland during the early twentieth century. It reveals the commercial and political agendas behind this move and the colleen's later application to Ulster unionist graphic propaganda against Home Rule between 1914 and 1916.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study is based on an analysis of primary and secondary sources; the former encompassing both graphic advertising material and ephemera.

Findings

This paper demonstrates how contemporary pictorial advertising for colleen soap was suffused with text and imagery propounding Ulster's preservation within the UK. It also suggests that the popularity of this brand personality may have been a factor in the colleen's appropriation for propaganda purposes by certain strands within Ulster unionism.

Originality/value

This paper is based on original research that expands the historical corpus of Irish visual representation, while also adding notably to discourses within the History of Marketing and Women's History.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1971

Without aspiring to emulate Robert Browning's song thrush, we venture to repeat an admonition on smoking in the food trade of almost a decade ago. (The Smoking Habit

Abstract

Without aspiring to emulate Robert Browning's song thrush, we venture to repeat an admonition on smoking in the food trade of almost a decade ago. (The Smoking Habit, 1962, BFJ, 64, 79). The first time it coincided with a little research we had undertaken, which later saw the light of day epitomized in article form and was enthusiastically (sic) commented upon in sections of the press and then died as if it had never been born. (Tobacco and Lung Cancer, 1965, Med. Offr., 2955, 148). Now, it coincides with the most concentrated, officially inspired, campaign, so far, mounted against the evils of smoking. The most striking fact about all these national efforts every few years is the lack of success in real terms. A marketing organization achieving such poor results would count it a costly failure. It would be unfair to say that none have given up, but with a habit so ingrained, determination is required and in many, if not most, of those able to refrain, the craving is so great that they are smoking again within a week or so. Overall, the smoking population is enormous, including, as it does, girls and women‐folk. Once, it was undignified for a woman to be seen smoking. We recall a visit by Queen Mary to the village Manor House, just after the First War; she was an expert in antique furniture and came to see the manor's collection. When Her Majesty asked for a cigarette, the village rang with astonishment for days. Nothing as amazing had happened since Cavaliers and Roundheads tethered their horses beneath the three great poplars which stood on the green. “Queen Mary! 'er smokes!”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1969

Factors which influence consumer spending, among the most sought after in any field of market research, things people buy and why, is valuable data on which much…

Abstract

Factors which influence consumer spending, among the most sought after in any field of market research, things people buy and why, is valuable data on which much industrial planning, advertising techniques and marketing is based, but in no other field of trade is consumer preference so closely related to pure economics, i.e., value received in money terms, as in food. With most other commodities, from clothes to cars, hair‐do's to houses, factors affecting consumer choice have different results; appearance, aesthetic quality and neighbourly competition, all play a part, though appearance in a few foods is not entirely without significance, e.g., white bread. Present high levels of consumer spending are said by politicians to be a danger to the country's economy; a more prosaic thought would be that Government spending, or squandering, constituted the greater threat. In the main, factors which influence household food expenditure are essentially down to earth—palatability, digestibility, keeping quality and how far a food will go in the preparation of meals, its value in money terms. The king‐pin in all market research on food must be the woman of the house; it is her laying out of the household purse that determines the amount of food expenditure and the varieties purchased week by week. A housewife's choice, however, is a complex of her family's likes and dislikes, rarely her own, and also determined by the amount allocated from her purse for this part of the household budget and the number of mouths she has to feed. Any tendency to experiment, to extend the variety of food, is only possible with a well‐filled purse; with a large family, a common complaint is of monotony in the diet. A factor of immense importance nowadays is whether the housewife is employed or not, and whether whole‐time or part‐time, and which part of the day she can be in her own home. To this may be attributed, as much as anything, the rise in consumption of convenience foods. Fortunately for the purposes of reasonable accuracy in the results of enquiries, housewives form a class, reliable and steady, unlikely to be contaminated by the palsied opinions of the so‐called lunatic fringe in this unquiet age. Any differences in food choice are likely to be regional, and settled dietary habits, passed on from one generation to another. Statistics from the National Food Surveys show the extent of these, and also consumer preferences as far as food commodity groups are concerned. The Surveys have been running long enough to show something of consumer trends but, of course, they do not exhibit reasons—why consumers buy and use certain foods, their attitudes to food marketing practices, and, in particular, to advertising. Advertising claims, misleading undoubtedly but within the law, have long been a source of controversy between those who worship at the shrine of truth and others less particular. Elsewhere, we review a special study of consumer reactions to aspects of the grocery trade in the U.S.A., and note that 32 per cent do not accept advertisements as being true, but 85 per cent find them interesting and informative. Advertising practices are probably subject to less statutory control in the United States than here, and the descriptions and verbiage certainly reach greater heights of absurdity, but the British housewife is likely to be no more discerning, able “to read between the lines”, than her counterpart in that country. A major difference, however, is that in Britain, more houswives prepare and cook meals for their families than in the United States. The greatest importance of advertising is in the introductory phase of a commodity; new and more vigorous advertising is necessary later to delay the onset of the decline phase of the commodity's life cycle; to ensure that sales can be maintained to prevent rises in supply costs. Advertising helps considerably in the acceptance of a branded food, but housewives tend to ignore cut‐throat competition between rival brands, and what weans a consumer from a brand is not competition in advertising, nor even new and more attractive presentation, but reduction in real price. The main pre‐occupation of the woman of the house is food adequacy, and especially that her children will have what she considers conforms to a nutritious diet, without argument or rebellion on the part of her progeny and without distinction. She knows that bulk foods, carbohydrates, are not necessarily nutritious, although her ideas of which foods contain vitamins or minerals or other important nutrient factors tends to be hazy. She does not pretend to enjoy shopping for food and therefore tends to follow a routine; it saves time and worry. Especially is this so with young married women, who may have to take small children along. Each housewife has her own mental standard of assessing “value”, and would have difficulty in defining it. Nutritional value forms part of it, however, in most women, who connote their food provision with health. The greatest concern is not necessarily positive health, but prevention or reduction of obesity, which is seen among adult members of the family, especially growing girls, as an adverse effect on their appearance, and the types of clothes they can wear. A few of the more intelligent families have an indefinable fear of ischaemic heart disease and its relation to food. When they take positive steps to control the diet for these purposes, they are quite frequently in the wrong direction and rather confused even when this is done on medical advice.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1951

WE all scan the advertisements for librarians in The Times Literary Supplement and other journals every week, and we might be forgiven for inferring from them that there…

Abstract

WE all scan the advertisements for librarians in The Times Literary Supplement and other journals every week, and we might be forgiven for inferring from them that there is a dearth of those who, by a curious inversion, are asked for as “A.L.A's or F.L.A's.” In contradiction, it would appear that about 1,500 youngsters are trying to enter the profession by way of the Entrance Examination every year. Youngsters beginning life, especially girls, do usually prefer or are constrained by their parents, the cost of living, and the scarcity of lodgings, to start in their home towns and still to live at home.. Higher in the scale the whole position is tangled in various ways. Many of the entrants fall by the way; commercial pay exceeds municipal and other library pay; more find the work uncongenial, as library work certainly is except to those who are book‐lovers, have a strong social sense, and, in the best cases, a flair for publicity and business administration. Others marry and leave, although some stay on with the ring on the third finger of their left hand. Thus, when maturity is reached, only a relatively few, even amongst the mature, have become chartered librarians and, fewer still, Fellows—as is natural seeing that the fellowship is a much more severe test nowadays and only much love and industry can achieve it. This position is even worse in some other branches of the municipal service; our salaries do not draw the best of the young folk permanently and many a Treasurer's office, to take one branch only, is complaining of want of good recruits. Those of our good ones who do remain do so because of the work and not the pay. Authority has always known this, from the day when Gladstone opined that working in the British Museum was so delightful that it was incredible that the workers wanted any pay at all. Chief librarians today have been most unfairly neglected by the salary negotiating bodies who have dealt generously with several other kinds of chief officers in the local services.

Details

New Library World, vol. 53 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Nicole Anae

There has been virtually no explication of poetry-writing pedagogy in historical accounts of Australian distance education during the 1930s. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been virtually no explication of poetry-writing pedagogy in historical accounts of Australian distance education during the 1930s. The purpose of this paper is to satisfy this gap in scholarship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper concerns a particular episode in the cultural history of education; an episode upon which print media of the 1930s sheds a distinctive light. The paper therefore draws extensively on 1930s press reports to: contextualise the key educational debates and prime-movers inspiring verse-writing pedagogy in Australian education, particularly distance education, in order to; concentrate specific attention on the creation and popular reception of Brave Young Singers (1938), the first and only anthology of children's poetry written entirely by students of the correspondence classes of Western Australia.

Findings

Published under the auspices of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) with funds originating from the Carnegie Corporation, two men in particular proved crucial to the development and culmination of Brave Young Singers. As the end result of a longitudinal study conducted by James Albert Miles with the particular support of Frank Tate, the publication attracted acclaim as a research document promoting ACER's success in educational research investigating the “experiment” of poetry-writing instruction through correspondence schooling.

Originality/value

The paper pays due critical attention to a previously overlooked anthology of Australian children's poetry while simultaneously presenting an original account of the emergence and implementation of verse-writing instruction within the Australian correspondence class curriculum of the 1930s.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Xose M. Lopez‐Fernandez, Andrzej Krawczyk and Slawomir Wiak

This paper aims to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's works, published in 1905.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's works, published in 1905.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a brief appraisal of Einstein's work.

Findings

The paper reminds the reader of the 1905 discoveries, such as photoelectric phenomena, special theory of relativity and Brown's motions.

Originality/value

The paper deals with the problem of how Einstein's concept contradicts or follows the Faraday concept of electromagnetic fields.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2018

David Crowther

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has now been clearly identified, categorised and theorised so that we can all be certain what is meant by the name and how it can be…

Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has now been clearly identified, categorised and theorised so that we can all be certain what is meant by the name and how it can be achieved. Indeed it is regularly practiced by all (or at least most) businesses and taught in business schools – so much so that it is largely unquestioned. This chapter looks at the development of CSR and its acceptance as a distinct discipline in its own right. In doing so it comes to the conclusion that CSR, as currently defined, has actually died and so needs to be rediscovered. The author argues the case that it is only by looking at current practice amongst businesses and the community that we can arrive at a realistic definition – which inevitably metamorphoses through time as culture and the economic environment change. Therefore what is currently identified as CSR is merely of historic interest. The implications of the argument are that research approaches need to change and so does the definition of CSR.

Details

Redefining Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-162-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Robert S. Brown

Selecting the most suitable, cost‐efficient alloy for a given application should not be difficult if the methodology described in this paper is followed. The first step is…

Abstract

Selecting the most suitable, cost‐efficient alloy for a given application should not be difficult if the methodology described in this paper is followed. The first step is to identify those alloys with the desired corrosion resistance. Factors other than chemical composition have a bearing on an alloy’s corrosion resistance. Service environment and nature of the product application must also be considered. These conditions are discussed in the text. Consideration should be given to other key issues such as mechanical properties required as well as method of fabrication, design, condition and availability of the candidate alloy. To simplify selection, the author discusses severe corrodents and aggressive environments that are commonly encountered in the process industries, and describes the characteristics of alloys that might be considered for each type of corrosive service. Cross referenced charts position these alloys to show their relative resistance to each type of corrosion attack. While the paper is not designed to replace the technical expertise of a corrosion engineer, the author feels it can serve as a good starting point in the alloy selection process.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1992

Smiths Industries Aerospace, Defence Division (Newmark), has been awarded a contract for Bell Helicopter Textron to supply 3‐inch Attitude Indicators (ADI's) for use on…

Abstract

Smiths Industries Aerospace, Defence Division (Newmark), has been awarded a contract for Bell Helicopter Textron to supply 3‐inch Attitude Indicators (ADI's) for use on OH‐58Ds (Kiowa Warrior). This order is part of the United States Army's Helicopter Improvement Programme which may total 507 OH‐58Ds. The OH‐58D is in great demand outside the USA.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 64 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2008

Peter Ryan

Abstract

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

1 – 10 of over 6000