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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Robert Rizzo

Nuclear weapons confront us as the challenge of our times. To understand the special psychological and moral issues raised by nuclear arsenals and their use, we must first…

Abstract

Nuclear weapons confront us as the challenge of our times. To understand the special psychological and moral issues raised by nuclear arsenals and their use, we must first grasp the special nature of these weapons. In a recent book on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the authors highlighted a fact which often escapes public attention; namely, nuclear weapons, many times more powerful than the 12.5 kiloton uranium bomb and the 22 kiloton plutonium bomb dropped respectively on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are qualitatively different from conventional explosives.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 13 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Robert F. Rizzo

Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end‐of‐life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end‐of‐life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the progress, there are still unresolved issues concerning the scope and effectiveness of personal decision making and the proper use of last resort measures in terminal care. An analysis of the progress discloses both the advances and the problems still confronting patients and their families. From this perspective, one gains a better understanding of the reality of terminal care and areas that call for reform.

Design/methodology/approach

A historical analysis reveals the interrelation between moral and legal reasoning and their differences. It also discloses developments in the moral and legal realms that recognize rights of the patient with regard to treatment decisions. A critique of ethical and legal reasoning and medical practice pin‐points the salient problems.

Findings

There are still problems in the application of legal and ethical principles to specific cases. These problems are complicated by poor physician‐patient communication, the ineffective use of advance directives and the impact of the market economy on comprehensive palliative care. These call for reform to protect personal rights and dignity at the end of life.

Originality/value

A historical approach, too often lacking, promotes insight into the complexities of end‐of‐life care. An analysis flowing from such a perspective pin‐points not only the advances in ethical, legal and medical practice but also the flaws and inconsistencies that call for a more realistic approach in reasoning and practice.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 32 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1993

Robert F. Rizzo

The health care crisis in the United States has roots that reachinto the nineteenth century. An examination of the cultural, social, andeconomic roots should warn against…

Abstract

The health care crisis in the United States has roots that reach into the nineteenth century. An examination of the cultural, social, and economic roots should warn against piecemeal and short‐range measures to correct a fragmented system which, despite all its achievements, is draining the economy while it fails to meet the needs of millions. Unlike the Western European experience, it began as a loosely organized and loosely co‐ordinated system, responding as it grew to the forces of change: research from Europe, technological advances, corporate interests, the need for a healthier labour force, and the economic stimuli of the marketplace. Throughout the centuries, the delivery of medical care was seen in the terms of the buying and selling of a commodity. Professional and corporate groups are interested in keeping it essentially as it is by emphasizing its accomplishments and predicting setbacks of all kinds if drastic change is made. Argues that if the reformers in and out of government do not recognize the roots of the problems and the pivotal points requiring radical surgery, they will be unsuccessful in bringing about a more comprehensive and efficient health care system. A final lesson of history is that health care is a much broader reality than medical care. The health of the people depends largely on the improvement of the social and natural environment.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 20 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1987

Robert F. Rizzo

The relation between moral judgements, policy decisions and economic implications is a challenging subject for analysis, especially when the isues are the arms race and…

Abstract

The relation between moral judgements, policy decisions and economic implications is a challenging subject for analysis, especially when the isues are the arms race and war‐fighting capabilities. How to translate moral judgements into policy decisions with their economic consequences is a complex and troublesome question because of the enormous stakes for national and worldwide survival. The problem confronting us is clearly illustrated by the US Catholic bishops' pastoral letter, The Challenge of Peace, May 1983, which addressed the moral dimension of the nuclear arms race and warfare without coming to grips adequately with the issues of policy decisions and economy which their moral conclusions raised. Their later pastoral letter, Economic Justice for All: Catholic Social Teaching and the US Economy, November 1986, compounded their failure by omitting to confront directly the economic implications of translating their moral conclusions into practical policies. The economic side of the arms race is a concern which must be recognised and addressed if policy decisions are to be made effective. The harshest critics of The Challenge of Peace have noted this failure realistically to confront policy decisions in terms of geopolitical, strategic and economic consequences.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 14 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Robert F. Rizzo

Examines the impact of genetic testing and therapy on health care in light of the development of the system in the USA since the turn of the twentieth century. Genetic…

Abstract

Examines the impact of genetic testing and therapy on health care in light of the development of the system in the USA since the turn of the twentieth century. Genetic testing and therapy have the potential to create a great advance in health care but also to become a business of multi‐billion dollar proportions. If present trends of investment and long‐range plans mature, health care will be adversely affected in terms of its distribution, access and economy. Developed and sold as commodities in a free‐market economy, genetic advances will economically stress health care and fail to meet the ethical and legal standards demanded by voluntary informed consent and counseling. Without abandonment of the marketplace approach to health care and thorough reform, many will find themselves excluded from the benefits and vulnerable to discrimination.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Alexandro Villanueva

Law Enforcement agencies across the nation are in the midst of generational turnover in the workforce. Current practices place most of the decision-making authority and…

Abstract

Law Enforcement agencies across the nation are in the midst of generational turnover in the workforce. Current practices place most of the decision-making authority and responsibility in the hands of professional managers, far-removed from routine contact with the public. It is the exercise of this authority that impacts organizational performance. Equity forms a cornerstone of a just society, and the functions of law enforcement lend themselves to demonstrate the multiple facets of equality. The underpinnings of this concept are based on the Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and Adams' Equity Theory of Motivation. A just society can only be based on the equitable treatment of all its members, regardless of relative status, and in practical terms, this chapter explores how law enforcement organizations can excel, or fail, based on how they practice fairness, both internally and externally.

Details

Leadership in Education, Corrections and Law Enforcement: A Commitment to Ethics, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-185-5

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Prosper Simbarashe Maguchu

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the shortfalls of the legal definition of corruption in Zimbabwe.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the shortfalls of the legal definition of corruption in Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

Defining corruption is a universal challenge. Thus, in reviewing Zimbabwes definition, this paper also draws on other common law system jurisdictions based on English traditions and Sharia law to make a comparative analysis. The paper also takes a multi-disciplinary approach that transcend fields of law and anthropology.

Findings

Although criminal law can be used as the normative basis in the fight against corruption, it can also be used by the powerful to shield themselves from corruption, through its indeterminacy and interpretation. Be this as it may, real and firm law can assist in curbing the vice.

Research limitations/implications

The paper’s purview is limited both in terms of subject and scope. Although it starts by considering the definition of corruption to get a broad overview of this subject, it mainly focuses on the meaning of two popular concepts that are popularly identified with our understanding of corruption – abuse of power and public office.

Originality/value

The paper tries to establish a framework for understanding and curbing corruption through the use of statutory law.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Mark C. Johlke and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of this paper is to extend Zablah et al.’s (2012) findings regarding the proper way to treat customer orientation (CO) to the study of CO among B-B salespeople…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend Zablah et al.’s (2012) findings regarding the proper way to treat customer orientation (CO) to the study of CO among B-B salespeople in one of the most important emerging economies, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors of this study hired a professional market research firm based in Chennai, a large metropolitan city in Southern India, to manage data collection. The authors used a competing models approach to test the relationship between constructs.

Findings

CO among frontline employees operating in one of the largest emerging economies is best treated as a psychological construct that is both directly and indirectly related to performance via its ability to reduce stress and improve engagement. This finding strengthens the view of CO as a universal human work value and, more broadly, that such values operating across different cultural setting do exist. In addition, external customer mindset appears to offer a superior means to measure CO than does the widely used CO component of the SOCO scale. This conclusion is based not only upon the fact that it conceptually corresponds with the psychological nature of CO, but also that in this initial examination it exhibits a greater ability to explain employee job performance.

Originality/value

Managers who are able to screen and hire employees with greater CO work values should experience improved performance outcomes and also less customer ambiguity and greater satisfaction among their frontline employees. Since CO proscribes the proper way to deal with customers, greater levels of CO beliefs would counteract customer ambiguity among frontline employees operating in any environment. Accordingly, when filling frontline positions, managers should actively seek out employees who earnestly embrace the role of taking care of customers. Managers are advised to not only emphasize on salespeople whose foremost role is to take care of their customers but also to find ways to familiarize them with their products and to provide them with information regarding customer characteristics such as their background, the relationship history (especially past service and product failures), and unique preferences.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Jun Ye and Jesse King

Although many service organizations have adopted a productivity orientation to respond to increasing market challenges, the unanticipated downside effect of such an…

Abstract

Purpose

Although many service organizations have adopted a productivity orientation to respond to increasing market challenges, the unanticipated downside effect of such an orientation is not well understood. For managers, it is interesting to know if this strategic initiative is working and how to implement it more successfully.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical model used in this paper is tested with a survey of 879 frontline employees from five different health-care organizations.

Findings

The authors find evidence of a trade-off when a productivity orientation is adopted. A productivity orientation improves frontline service employee productivity performance but indirectly harms quality performance and job satisfaction. The authors find further evidence that trust in management helps to mitigate these negative effects.

Research Limitations/implications

This paper suggests that a productivity orientation must be managed carefully. Efficiency improvements may be overshadowed by reduced quality and job satisfaction. Limitations arise from the self-reported survey data.

Practical Implications

The results suggest that employees who trust their managers are better able to cope with the stressors arising from increased productivity demands.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, no research has systematically examined the process and potential hazards of implementing a productivity orientation from a frontline employee perspective. The current paper reveals the mechanisms by which a productivity orientation influences frontline employees’ change perceptions and performance and shows that employee trust in management may buffer the downside effects of a productivity orientation.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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