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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Benoît Mahy, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

The paper aims to introduce the special issue of IJM, a collection of papers that were originally presented at the 88th Applied Econometrics Association Conference.

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5764

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to introduce the special issue of IJM, a collection of papers that were originally presented at the 88th Applied Econometrics Association Conference.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides a general outline of the focus of the issue.

Findings

The conference papers aimed to stimulate discussion on the “Econometrics of labour demand”. They focus on aspects of HRM, including incentive pay schemes, job satisfaction, promotion and social concerns.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the development of personnel economics over the past 25 years and introduces the papers in the special issue of IJM.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Thierry Lallemand, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

This paper analyses the magnitude and sources of the firm‐size wage premium in the Belgian private sector.

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2555

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the magnitude and sources of the firm‐size wage premium in the Belgian private sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a unique matched employer‐employee data set, our empirical strategy is based on the estimation of a standard Mincer wage equation. We regress individual gross hourly wages (including bonuses) on the log of firm‐size and insert step by step control variables in order to test the validity of various theoretical explanations.

Findings

Results show the existence of a significant and positive firm‐size wage premium, even when controlling for many individual characteristics and working conditions. A substantial part of this wage premium derives from the sectoral affiliation of the firms. It is also partly due to the higher productivity and stability of the workforce in large firms. Yet, findings do not support the hypothesis that large firms match high skilled workers together. Finally, results indicate that the elasticity between wages and firm‐size is significantly larger for white‐collar workers and comparable in the manufacturing and the service sectors.

Research limitation/implications

Unfortunately, we are not able to control for the potential non‐random sorting process of workers across firms of different sizes.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few to test the empirical validity of recent hypotheses (e.g. productivity, job stability and matching of high skilled workers). It is also the first to analyse the firm‐size wage premium in the Belgian private sector.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Amynah Gangji and Robert Plasman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of unemployment persistence among the Belgian labour force. The underlying issue is to determine the eventual…

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1864

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of unemployment persistence among the Belgian labour force. The underlying issue is to determine the eventual existence of a true causal relationship between successive unemployment spells.

Design/methodology/approach

The model used is a dynamic random effects probit model controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and the initial condition problem. It was applied to the Panel Study on Belgian Households (1994‐2002).

Findings

The results suggest that while observed and unobserved heterogeneity explain between 57 per cent and 82 per cent of unemployment persistence, the remainder is induced by the presence of state dependence. All else being equal, an individual unemployed this year will be between 11.4 and 33 percentage points more likely to be unemployed next year as compared with an employed person.

Practical implications

The presence of a stigmatisation effect of unemployment means that the costs of unemployment are much higher than the simple loss of income and human capital associated with the current job loss. The study demonstrates the importance of concentrating efforts on the prevention of unemployment.

Originality/value

The paper's contribution is to test again the hypothesis of the presence of state dependence in unemployment using a different technique, allowing, among other things, to control for exogenous variables. The paper demonstrates its existence and measures its contribution in the explanation of unemployment persistence in Belgium, besides that of observed and unobserved characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Danièle Meulders, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

This paper introduces the Special Issue on competitive versus non‐competitive wage differentials, a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Conference of the…

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927

Abstract

This paper introduces the Special Issue on competitive versus non‐competitive wage differentials, a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Conference of the Applied Econometrics Association held in Brussels in May 2002.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Danièle Meulders, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

Introduces a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Applied Econometrics Association Conference which was organised with the specific aim of stimulating…

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4114

Abstract

Introduces a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Applied Econometrics Association Conference which was organised with the specific aim of stimulating discussion on the “econometrics of wages”. Topics of particular focus include gender wage gaps and wage discrimination. The papers provide insight into the magnitude and sources of gender, racial and sexual orientation earnings inequalities.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

W.D. McCausland, K. Pouliakas and I. Theodossiou

To investigate whether significant differences exist in job satisfaction (JS) between individuals receiving performance‐related pay (PRP) and those on alternative…

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14418

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate whether significant differences exist in job satisfaction (JS) between individuals receiving performance‐related pay (PRP) and those on alternative compensation plans.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from four waves (1998‐2001) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), a Heckman‐type econometric procedure is applied that corrects for both self‐selection of individuals into their preferred compensation scheme and the endogeneity of wages in a JS framework.

Findings

It is found that while the predicted JS of workers receiving PRP is lower on average compared to those on other pay schemes, PRP exerts a positive effect on the mean JS of (very) high‐paid workers. A potential explanation for this pattern could be that for lower‐paid employees PRP is perceived to be controlling, whereas higher‐paid workers derive a utility benefit from what they view as supportive reward schemes.

Research limitations/implications

As the study utilises data from the UK only, its results cannot be generalized to other countries characterized by distinct labour market contexts. Furthermore, the quality of the estimates depends on the quality of the identifying restrictions which, in these types of studies, are always somewhat ad hoc. However, the available tests for evaluating the quality of the identifying restrictions indicated that they are appropriate for the models used.

Practical implications

The findings of the paper suggest that using performance pay as an incentive device in the UK could prove to be counterproductive in the long run for certain low‐paid occupations, as far as employee JS is concerned.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to have attempted to correct for the selectivity issue when considering the effect of PRP on JS. Its implications should be of interest to human resource managers when designing the compensation strategies of their organizations.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Síle O'Dorchai, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

This paper aims to measure and analyse the wage gap between male part‐ and full‐timers in the private sector of six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Denmark, Ireland…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure and analyse the wage gap between male part‐ and full‐timers in the private sector of six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a unique matched employer‐employee data set providing harmonised information on six European countries (the 1995 European Structure of Earnings Survey), the empirical strategy is based on the estimation of standard Mincer wage equations and the Oaxaca and Ransom wage gap decomposition technique. First, individual gross hourly wages are regressed on a set of human capital variables only and second, a wider range of control variables related to e.g. occupation, sector of activity, firm size, and level of wage bargaining is inserted.

Findings

The study finds that the raw gap in hourly gross pay amounts to 16 per cent of a male part‐timer's wage in Spain, to 24 per cent in Belgium, to 28 per cent in Denmark and Italy, to 67 per cent in the UK and to 149 per cent in Ireland. Human capital differences explain between 31 per cent of the observed wage gap in the UK and 71 per cent in Denmark. When the whole set of explanatory variables is included in the wage regressions, a much larger part of the gap is explained by differences in observed characteristics (except in Italy).

Research limitation/implications

Unfortunately, the paper is not able to correct for workers' potential self‐selection into part‐time and full‐time employment. Results suggest that policy initiatives to promote lifelong learning and training are of great importance to help part‐timers catch up with full‐timers in terms of human capital. Moreover, except for Italy, they point to a persisting problem of occupational and sectoral segregation between men working part‐time and full‐time which requires renewed policy attention.

Originality/value

Economic theory advances a number of reasons for the existence of a wage gap between part‐time and full‐time workers. Empirical work has concentrated on the wage effects of part‐time work for women. For men, much less empirical evidence exists, mainly because of lacking data. This paper therefore makes a valuable contribution. The more so given that (to the best of our knowledge) there exists no cross‐national evidence with respect to men's part‐time wage penalty.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Iben Bolvig

To analyse two important effects of the level of social concern in the firm. First, the effect on the labour force composition, i.e. do particular types of concerns…

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1336

Abstract

Purpose

To analyse two important effects of the level of social concern in the firm. First, the effect on the labour force composition, i.e. do particular types of concerns attract certain kinds of employees? Second, the effect on the wage level within the firm, i.e. do firm‐provided social concerns substitute for money wages, or are they provided as an additional compensation?

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical analysis using a survey on more than 2,000 firms, linked to administrative data for each employee in the firms. Estimates wage equations using the IV approach to deal with endogeneity of the level of social concerns. Two competing theories aiming to explain the use of social concerns toward employees, the compensating wage differential theory and corporate social responsibility, are compared.

Findings

Finds indications in favour of the compensating wage differential theory when looking at wage effects at the firm level, whereas looking at the target group level finds that white‐collar workers might experience higher levels of social concerns without having lower wages, which contrast the theory of compensating wage differentials.

Originality/value

The paper compare two well‐established theories within two different disciplines – the compensating wage differential theory from economics, and CSR from management. This is done using solid empirical analysis.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Hannu Piekkola

To analyse productivity effects of performance‐related pay (PRP).

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8202

Abstract

Purpose

To analyse productivity effects of performance‐related pay (PRP).

Design/methodology/approach

Fixed effect analysis of the productivity effects of the introduction of PRP scheme using linked employer‐employee data from Finland in 1996‐2002 and controlling for the skill structure of the employees.

Findings

PRP improves both productivity and profitability by the same magnitude of around 6 per cent, but only if the compensations are substantial enough and exceeding on average 3.6 per cent of salaries for those who receive it. Incentive effects relate to the introduction of PRP, usually accompanied by new human resource management. PRP in Finland cannot, however, be directly linked to an increase in participation of employees in decision‐making. PRP schemes have substantially improved firm performance without creating much wage pressures.

Practical implications

Useful information for the implementation and design of incentive‐based wage schemes.

Originality/value

Very few papers using large data sets have information on exact PRP payments that are separate from bonus pay or piece wages.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Kostas Mavromaras and Anthony Scott

The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence promotions of medical staff from registrar to consultant in the Scottish NHS.

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784

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence promotions of medical staff from registrar to consultant in the Scottish NHS.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses the question of what determines the incidence of promotion, concentrating on the impact of experience, effort and the choice of specialty in promotion outcomes. A unique panel data set is used that contains individual level information on all NHS hospital doctors in Scotland from 1991 to 2000. Probabilities of promotion are decomposed by specialty into the part attributable to the mean characteristics of the doctors in each specialty and the effect of belonging to a specialty itself.

Findings

The paper estimates a panel model of promotion and identifies specialty effects on promotion. Effort in the two years before promotion is shown to have an influence on promotion probabilities. Specialties are found to exhibit considerable differences in their rate of promotion over and above the differences explained by the characteristics of the doctors in them.

Originality/value

The paper examines the promotion of medical staff from registrar to consultant in the Scottish NHS during the 1990s. The paper concentrates on the impact of experience, effort and medical specialty on the probability of promotion.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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