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Several causes may induce firm managers to analyze the actual technology condition of patent portfolios, among which is the need of exploiting patents strategically. In…
Several causes may induce firm managers to analyze the actual technology condition of patent portfolios, among which is the need of exploiting patents strategically. In this paper, the question of how to support intellectual property (IP) managers of large high technology companies in their strategic decision-making process of evaluating patents is examined. The purpose of this paper is to provide a decision support framework that suggests the suitable exploitation strategy for patents.
The paper proposes an audit framework able to point out whether patents are aligned to the overall business strategy, to select those that are not aligned, and to identify the most appropriate exploitation strategy for each patent of the portfolio. The framework is structured into two phases: in the first one, patents are selected through the analysis of four dimensions that characterize the value of patents effectively; in the second one, a questionnaire is distributed to IP managers in order to support their decision on patents. The paper illustrates case-based applications of the framework.
Results of applications show that the framework is able to suggest IP managers the suitable exploitation strategy on four possible alternatives (maintaining, licensing, selling, abandoning) for each patent of their portfolios.
The framework is an innovative and valuable tool to IP managers, and besides its structural formulation, it is appreciable in terms of application expedition and efficiency of performance.
In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular…
In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular attention being paid to the appropriateness of various human resources management (HRM) practices because practices that may be effective within one cultural context may not be effective in other cultural contexts. This chapter argues that a multi-level perspective is needed to explain the interplay between HRM practices and employee responses across cultural contexts. Specifically, the multi-level framework developed in this chapter elucidates the importance of fit between HRM practices, individual values, organizational values, and societal values. Societal values play a key role in the adoption of HRM practices, and the effectiveness of these HRM practices will depend largely on “fit” or alignment with the values of the societal culture in which the organization is operating. HRM practices also shape the collective responses of employees through organizational climate at the organizational level and through psychological climate at the individual level. For positive employee attitudes and responses to emerge, the climate created by the HRM practices must be aligned with societal and individual values. Building on these notions, the strength of the societal culture in which the organization is operating serves as a mechanism that links relationships between climate, value fit, and attitudes across levels of analysis. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for future research and implications for practice.
Strategic human resource management (SHRM) practices are used by large foreign multinational companies to improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to…
Strategic human resource management (SHRM) practices are used by large foreign multinational companies to improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to establish the direct or indirect relationship between SHRM practices and firm performance.
SHRM practices are conceptualized as independent variables measured through a bundle of distinct practices. Organizational performance as a dependent variable is measured using constructs of image, interpersonal relations, and product quality. The model is tested with data from 50 large foreign multinational companies operating in Kenya.
Results of this paper show that the SHRM practices that best predict firm performance are training and development and compensation systems. The relationship between the use of SHRM practices and firm performance does not hold across the five bundles of what are considered as “high performance work practices”. This paper also assumes that the relationship between SHRM practices and firm performance is indirect through motivation.
Cross‐sectional data from 50 large manufacturing companies in Kenya are used, and it would be interesting to test this model for more industries and countries.
Results of this paper have shown that the SHRM practices that best predict firm performance are training and development and compensation systems.
To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first large‐scale empirical paper of the influence of SHRM practices on firm performance, using data from large foreign manufacturing companies operating in Kenya.