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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Fanny Caranikas‐Walker, Sanjay Goel, Luis R. Gómez‐Mejía, Robert L. Cardy and Arden Grabke Rundell

The empirical support for agency theory explanations for the great variance in CEO pay has been equivocal. Drawing from the performance appraisal literature, we…

Abstract

The empirical support for agency theory explanations for the great variance in CEO pay has been equivocal. Drawing from the performance appraisal literature, we hypothesize that boards of directors incorporate human judgment into the evaluation and reward of CEO performance in order to balance managerial risk with agency costs. We test Baysinger and Hoskisson’s (1990) proposition that insider‐dominated corporate boards rely on subjective performance evaluation to reward the CEO, and we argue that R&D intensity influences this relationship. Using a sample of Fortune firms, findings support our contention that human judgment is important in evaluating and rewarding CEO performance.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Robert L. Cardy and T.T. Selvarajan

The objective of this empirical study is to apply the methodology commonly used to performance appraisal and examine if outcomes achieved by ratees bias rater's judgment…

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Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this empirical study is to apply the methodology commonly used to performance appraisal and examine if outcomes achieved by ratees bias rater's judgment of ratee ethical behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted: in study 1 the participants were undergraduate business students and in study 2, the participants were MBA students but who were also full time employees. In both these studies, participants read the vignettes and rated the ratee performance using behavior observation scale.

Findings

Both the studies found support for the main hypothesis that outcomes achieved by the ratees influenced judgment of ethical behavior. The hypothesis that ethical beliefs of raters will moderate the biasing influence of outcomes on ethical judgment bias was not supported.

Research limitations/implications

If outcomes achieved by employees influence judgment of ethical behavior, future research has to examine how the biasing influence of outcomes on ethical judgments can be mitigated or eliminated.

Practical implications

If managers are influence by outcomes achieved by their employees in judging the ethical behavior, it can lead to “success breeds acceptance” culture. If organizations place undue emphasis on outcomes at the cost of ethical standards, unethical behavior of individuals could be condoned or justified which would lead to worsening of ethical climate in these organizations.

Originality/value

This study demonstrated that outcomes achieved by employees biases judgment of their ethical behavior and this finding has important implications for designing effective appraisal systems for assessing ethical behavior of employees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 January 2003

Robert L. Cardy and Janice S. Miller

Technology has had a dramatic impact on organizational environments. The changes necessitate that Human Resource Management (HRM) take aggressive steps to adapt and to add…

Abstract

Technology has had a dramatic impact on organizational environments. The changes necessitate that Human Resource Management (HRM) take aggressive steps to adapt and to add value to organizations. This chapter focuses on implications for HRM, particularly in the areas of job analysis, selection, and performance management. Directions for both research and practice are discussed.

Details

Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-191-0

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

K. Narasimhan

526

Abstract

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

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Abstract

Purpose

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

So much of organizational life is structured: even “flat” organizations have hierarchies; once created, the management of knowledge is codified; customer loyalty is dependent upon collated and archived data. Yet, when the future of most businesses is reliant on the acquisition, development and retention of talented people, this essential element of organizational success can so often be haphazard at best. The question that strategists from human resources and more broadly need to consider is “why is the management of talent so often left to chance?” When it comes to getting the best from the best people, a little structure can go a long way.

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to‐digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

E. Soltani, J. Gennard, R.B. van der Meer and T. Williams

While the concepts of performance evaluation and total quality management (TQM) have been explored in the management literature of the last decades, there has been…

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Abstract

While the concepts of performance evaluation and total quality management (TQM) have been explored in the management literature of the last decades, there has been relatively little work on the particular characteristics that an organisation with a TQM approach to human resource (HR) performance evaluation should adopt. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature in the area of TQM and HR performance evaluation, in order to establish the context for future empirical research. This study provides a brief overview of the implications of a quality orientation for the evaluation of employee performance. It reveals the main difficulties with the concept of performance evaluation from a quality perspective; and it also examines particular characteristics of performance evaluation that could maximise the effectiveness of HR performance evaluation in organisational environments with a quality orientation. Both the assumptions of TQM and the requirements for HR evaluation are used as a foundation from which to examine the ways in which HR performance evaluation might have changed to integrate TQM requirements. By examining the relevant literature, the main criteria of a TQM‐based HR performance evaluation system are refined and enhanced, thus moving towards a situation in which TQM can drive HR performance evaluation in practice. The results also serve as a guide for the evaluation of the effectiveness of such a system.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Ebrahim Soltani, Robert van der Meer, Terry M. Williams and Pei‐chun Lai

This paper aims to address the question whether or not quality‐driven organisations have, in practice, tended to adjust their performance appraisal systems to integrate…

8316

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the question whether or not quality‐driven organisations have, in practice, tended to adjust their performance appraisal systems to integrate total quality management (TQM) requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, the findings of an initial literature survey suggested the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods for empirical research. The quantitative element consists of a postal questionnaire survey of 64 UK‐based, quality‐driven organisations on the topic of performance appraisal in the context of TQM. Key informants from ten of these organisations were subsequently interviewed in order to gather detailed information on the reasons behind their initial responses.

Findings

The results indicated that only a minority of the respondents were satisfied with their TQM programmes. But this comparative lack of success did not lead them to eliminate performance appraisal altogether, as advocated by Deming and others because of the role of systems‐level causes of performance variation.

Research limitations/implications

One important question concerns the notion (expounded in much of the quality literature) that a vast proportion of the variance in individual performance is caused by systems‐level features. There is, however, little hard evidence for this view.

Practical implications

By acquiring the relevant knowledge and understanding of contextually‐appropriate performance appraisal and management, practitioners would be able to translate and mediate TQM requirements into performance appraisal criteria to maintain the integrity of organisational change initiatives aimed at long‐term business excellence.

Originality/value

The research provides a starting‐point for both TQM scholars and managers, and it can serve as a road‐map and a challenge to quality‐driven organisations.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Robert A. Baron, Suzanne P. Fortin, Richard L. Frei, Laurie A. Hauver and Melisa L. Shack

Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of socially‐induced positive affect on organizational conflict. In Study I, male and female subjects were provoked or…

Abstract

Two studies were conducted to investigate the impact of socially‐induced positive affect on organizational conflict. In Study I, male and female subjects were provoked or not provoked, and then exposed to one of several treatments designed to induce positive affect among them. Results indicated that several of these procedures (e.g., mild flattery, a small gift, self‐deprecating remarks by an opponent) increased subjects' preference for resolving conflict through collaboration, but reduced their preference for resolving conflict through competition. In addition, self‐deprecating remarks by an opponent (actually an accomplice) increased subjects' willingness to make concessions to this person during negotiations. In Study 2, male and female subjects were exposed to two treatments designed to induce positive affect (humorous remarks, mild flattery). These were presented before, during, or after negotiations with another person (an accomplice). Both treatments reduced subjects' preferences for resolving conflict through avoidance and increased their preferences for resolving conflict through collaboration, but only when delivered during or immediately after negotiations. Together, the results of both studies suggest that simple interventions designed to induce positive affect among the parties to conflicts can yield several beneficial effects.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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