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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Patrick Holzmann, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business models that 3D printer manufacturers apply to commercialize their technologies. The authors investigate these business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business models that 3D printer manufacturers apply to commercialize their technologies. The authors investigate these business models and analyze whether there are business model patterns. The paper describes the gestalt of the business model patterns and discusses differences and similarities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literatures on business models and 3D printing technology. The authors apply a componential business model approach and carry out an in-depth analysis of the business models of 48 3D printer manufacturers in Europe and North America. The authors develop a framework focusing on value proposition, value creation and value capture components. Cluster analysis is used to identify business model patterns.

Findings

The results indicate that there are two distinct business model patterns in the industry. The authors termed these patterns the “low-cost online business model” and the “technology expert business model.” The results demonstrate that there is a relationship between business model and technology. The identified patterns are independent of age, company size and country of origin.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical results complement and extend existing literature on business models. The authors contribute to the discussion on business models in the context of novel technology. The technology seems to influence the gestalt of the business model. The sample is limited to European and North American companies and the analysis is based on secondary data.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study on the business models of 3D printer manufacturers. The authors apply an original mixed-methods approach and develop a framework that can function as a starting point for future research. 3D printer manufacturers can use the identified business model patterns as blueprints to reduce the risk of failure or as a starting point for business model innovation.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Aqeel Ahmed Soomro, Robert J. Breitenecker and Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah

People in both the developing and developed worlds now face issues like work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

People in both the developing and developed worlds now face issues like work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict and perceived employee performance with job satisfaction serving as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

The object of this study is a full-time teaching faculty. Responses from 280 young university teaching faculty serving in public-sector universities in Islamabad, Pakistan, were investigated by applying linear regression analysis to test six hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that work-life balance and work-family conflict have a positive effect on employee performance. Job satisfaction has moderating effects on the relationships between work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict with perceived employee performance.

Originality/value

The study presents some unique results, which are different from previous studies such as work-family conflict has a positive significant effect on employee performance, family-work conflict has no significant effect on employee performance, and job satisfaction can be a negative moderator between these relations.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Patrick Holzmann, Robert J. Breitenecker, Aqeel A. Soomro and Erich J. Schwarz

3D printing possesses certain characteristics that are beneficial for user entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the business models of user…

Abstract

Purpose

3D printing possesses certain characteristics that are beneficial for user entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the business models of user entrepreneurs in the 3D printing industry. In addition, various business opportunities in 3D printing open to user entrepreneurs are classified according to their attractiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literatures on user entrepreneurship and on business models. Data from eight user entrepreneurs in Europe and North America are analyzed, applying qualitative content analysis. Multiple correspondence analysis is used to analyze their respective business models.

Findings

User entrepreneurs in the 3D printing utilize a number of different business models, which show similarities in particular business model components. User entrepreneurs focus primarily on the combination of low opportunity exploitation cost and a large number of potential customers.

Research limitations/implications

Online business seems to be beneficial for user entrepreneurship in 3D printing. Policy makers can foster user entrepreneurship by expanding entrepreneurship education and lowering administrative barriers of business foundation. The results of this study are based on a small European and North American sample. Thus, they might not be applicable to other markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study of user entrepreneur business models in 3D printing and, thus, contributes to the literature on business models and on user entrepreneurship. In view of the novelty of the field, the business models identified in the study could serve as blueprints for prospective user entrepreneurs in 3D printing.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Mohammad Saud Khan, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to examine how internal locus of control (LOC) as a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait at team level impacts team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how internal locus of control (LOC) as a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait at team level impacts team performance (effectiveness and efficiency) in Austria. In addition, it investigates the interaction effects of LOC diversity and affective trust on the internal LOC-performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data originated from 44 entrepreneurial teams based in nine business incubators in Austria. Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling was used to estimate the model.

Findings

Results indicate that higher internal LOC at team level promotes entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. However, team efficiency is increased when such teams possess a high internal LOC and low LOC diversity. Affective trust is identified as a crucial component in enhancing entrepreneurial team effectiveness, especially when the team has a high internal LOC.

Originality/value

This study extends research on internal LOC at team level by investigating it as a predictor of entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. Second, it systematically analyses if and how diversity in internal LOC affects team performance in an entrepreneurial team context. The paper takes a pioneering step by testing a key methodological contribution of addressing the inherent bias in measuring diversity of small teams. Finally, it is one of the first studies to show not only the importance of affect in general, but also the trust based on affect for entrepreneurial team dynamics.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mohammad Saud Khan, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to examine how diversity in need for achievement (nfA) a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait impacts team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how diversity in need for achievement (nfA) a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait impacts team performance (effectiveness and efficiency) in Austria. In addition, it investigates the interaction effects of Team Mean nfA and relationship conflicts on the nfA diversity-performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data originated from 44 entrepreneurial teams based in nine business incubators in Austria. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to estimate the model.

Findings

Results indicate that, in general, nfA diversity has a negative impact on entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. However, acknowledging the importance of nfA for being entrepreneurial, diversity in nfA could improve team effectiveness when the prevailing team nfA (mean) is low. The dysfunctional role of relationship conflicts for entrepreneurial team performance is confirmed; nonetheless, similarity in nfA could help teams to cope more successfully with these potentially negative consequences.

Originality/value

The paper puts forth one of the first empirical investigations of nfA and performance at a team level in an entrepreneurial field setting. Moreover, a contextually specific contribution of examining nfA diversity, team nfA (mean), relationship conflicts and team performance also augments team deep-level diversity and conflict literature. Finally, this study highlights that entrepreneurial teams could effectively leverage their human capital by realizing that some types of deep-level homogeneity (nfA) might prove helpful in neutralizing the damaging effects of relationship conflicts.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Erich J. Schwarz, Malgorzata A. Wdowiak, Daniela A. Almer‐Jarz and Robert J. Breitenecker

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of intention, it aims to develop a model of entrepreneurial intent that incorporates both human and environmental factors. Specifically, the proposed model aims to focus on three constructs to predict the entrepreneurial intent, i.e. general attitudes (toward money, change, and competiveness), the attitude toward entrepreneurship, and the perception of the university environment and regional start‐up infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

In June 2005, 35,040 students of medicine, law, and technical, natural, social and business science from seven universities in Austria (electronic survey) were contacted. The response rate was 8.10 per cent. A total of 2,124 cases were considered in the final analysis. A multiple linear regression model with attitudes, perceptions of environment conditions, and selected control variables (age, gender, field of study) was estimated to test the hypotheses.

Findings

With the exception of the attitude toward competitiveness, all other paths regarding general and specific attitudes are significant. Pertaining to the environment conditions, only significant effects of the university on students' interest in business founding were detected. Other environment factors have no impact on entrepreneurial intention among students in Austria. In addition to that, significant differences in entrepreneurial intent regarding age, gender and field of study were found. Despite variation in the intent level between students of different fields of study, any significant differences in the effects of predictor variables on the entrepreneurial intent among the investigated student population were not discovered.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should place more emphasis on interaction between personal and environmental factors. Besides, students' social networks (family and friends) should be included in the analysis of entrepreneurial career decision. Practical implications – The universities in Austria should more extensively address entrepreneurship education to students of other subjects than business sciences. An important component of entrepreneurial training is a social learning process. In this respect, inviting successful entrepreneurs (role models) to the lectures or enabling students small business experience via interaction with local entrepreneurs can be viewed as supportive actions. Developing entrepreneurial skills as crucial life capacities should be the main target of all university faculties.

Originality/value

The paper lays the foundation for a better understanding of the “intent preconditions” in the context of new venture creation, particularly in the context of Austrian students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Robert Martens, Susan K. Fan and Rocky J. Dwyer

The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was to explore the successful strategies that managers of light and high-tech small and medium-sized manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was to explore the successful strategies that managers of light and high-tech small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in the Netherlands, use to adopt additive manufacturing (AM) technology into their business models.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, multiple-case study approach was used. The participants for this study consisted of executive-level managers of light and high-tech manufacturing companies in the Netherlands. Company documents were studied, and individual interviews were undertaken with participants to gain an understanding of the strategies they used to adopt AM technology into their business models.

Findings

Three significant themes emerged from the data analysis: identify business opportunities for AM technology, experiment with AM technology and embed AM technology.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study could be of advantage to industry leaders and manufacturing managers who are contemplating to adopt AM in their business models.

Originality/value

This study may contribute to the further proliferation of AM technology. Industry leaders may also gain a clearer understanding of the effects of 3DP on local employment. The results of the study may also work as a catalyst for increased awareness for manufacturing firm leaders who have not yet considered the opportunities and threats AM technology presents to their organizations.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2021

B M Razzak, Robert Blackburn and George Saridakis

This paper investigates the linking between employees' working life (EWL) and job performance of ethnic minority Bangladeshi restaurants in Greater London.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the linking between employees' working life (EWL) and job performance of ethnic minority Bangladeshi restaurants in Greater London.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use in depth face-to-face interviews of 40 participants working in 20 Bangladeshi restaurants (BRs) following a convenience sampling method. A thematic analysis technique, with the help of QSR N10, developed two key themes related to EWL and performance.

Findings

These themes highlight several aspects of the relationship between EWL and performance. First, EWL is “beyond” the UK tradition; employers show a domineering attitude; however, employees continue to work due to lack of skills and competence. Second, employees perceive and present themselves as satisfied; however, this satisfaction is not reflected in the business performance of BRs. Third, the analysis shows that business owners “trap strategy” constrains employees to develop their skills for mobility to other industries. Hence, employees express satisfaction with their existing situation on the basis that it is the best they can hope for, given their specific skills and competence, and need for some security in the UK. Fourth, non-financial performance, for example, job autonomy, sense of fulfilment is related to EWL.

Practical implications

The paper provides a framework to promote a better understanding of the linking between employees' working life and performance of UK ethnic minority restaurants. Also, the paper makes recommendations for further research, including an examination of the applicability of the findings to SMEs operated by other ethnic groups in the UK.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the scarce literature on the working life of people in Bangladeshi restaurant businesses in the UK and the relationship between EWL and business performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Alan Murray and Robert James Crammond

This paper analyses the transition of university students from initial perceptions of enterprise to potentially heightened levels of proclivity towards creative behaviours…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the transition of university students from initial perceptions of enterprise to potentially heightened levels of proclivity towards creative behaviours and future entrepreneurial activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a positivist approach, an intention-based scorecard survey targeted to two cohorts totalling 75 undergraduate students leading to 150 responses at a Scottish university. These were circulated at start and end sessions of four relevant courses, to establish a measure for self-evaluation with respect to perception and proclivity.

Findings

The data gathered from the Entrepreneurial Scorecard emphasised differences in perception and proclivity between the two cohorts, namely creativity, risk-taking, leadership and business aspiration. This re-emphasised the three identified themes: awareness through trait identification; autonomy through developing enterprising skills; and achievement through practicing entrepreneurial activities. This formed the basis for our novel model in supporting the entrepreneurial development of students: The Perception to Proclivity Process Model.

Research limitations/implications

This study focusses on a single case and further research within other institutions and domains is encouraged to contextually test the transferability of the two key outputs: the Entrepreneurial Scorecard and the Perception to Proclivity Process Model.

Practical implications

The practical output of this research is a novel tool for evaluating entrepreneurial perceptions and proclivity through the scorecard. This study adds to the existing research base around entrepreneurial intention and action whilst providing a new model for a guiding framework for the entrepreneurial student and educator journey.

Originality/value

This paper's approach outlines many themes and inherent questions of concern to enterprise educators and university management towards the creation, maintenance, or development of an enterprise course or programme. This research introduces the concepts of entrepreneurial perception and entrepreneurial proclivity, explaining the important role they play in developing students. Additionally, the scorecard has potential for application in a longitudinal context as a means of establishing potential shifts in entrepreneurial perception and proclivity. However, the application is not limited to the scope of higher education, with clear potential to apply this tool and approach within other domains.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Kiattichai Kalasin

This study aims to examine how senior foreign executives in a top management team catalyse strategic change in firms that originated from emerging markets (EMs). It…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how senior foreign executives in a top management team catalyse strategic change in firms that originated from emerging markets (EMs). It further examines the moderating effects of organisational size and uncertainty avoidance (UA) on the positive relationship between senior foreign manager and strategic change in an organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The panel data econometrics and multilevel analyses were adopted to run the model. The author tests hypotheses on 263 emerging market firms (EMFs), originating from nine EMs.

Findings

Empirical results reveal that senior foreign managers are active agents who can promote and implement strategic change in an organisation. They possess a different set of values, knowledge and experiences that can trigger strategic change. In addition, firm size and UA weaken the relationship between senior foreign manager ratio and strategic change of a firm..

Practical implications

This study indicates that recruiting committees of EMFs should consider hiring senior foreign managers to foster a higher degree of strategic change. Nevertheless, firm size and UA may impose implementation difficulties for senior, foreign managers. As a result, the focal firm should be flexible and open to change.

Originality/value

This study aims to contribute to strategic change and top management team internationalisation literature by promoting the role of senior foreign managers and national culture on strategic change.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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