Uses a large sample survey of businesses to demonstrate that a critical mass threshold exists for their use of business support organization services. This critical mass…
Uses a large sample survey of businesses to demonstrate that a critical mass threshold exists for their use of business support organization services. This critical mass threshold is very marked for the two organizations examined: British case studies of chambers of commerce and government‐supported business training and advice bodies. Beyond this threshold, managers of chambers of commerce can achieve nonlinear returns to scale, while returns to scale for government‐supported bodies are almost exactly linear. Infers that this results from the very different motives of commercially based chambers and their members, compared to government‐supported bodies, which allow the benefits of service bundling for chambers while managers of government bodies have to deal with multiple discrete programmes offering few synergies. Also examines the effects of external economies of agglomeration and shows that these increase market penetration and hence reduce the catchment sizes necessary to reach critical mass only in the case of the most agglomerated urban and industrial centres.
Examines the impact of the 1989 Finance Act, imposing VAT on theconstruction sector. Concludes that there will be major discouragementto many development projects…
Examines the impact of the 1989 Finance Act, imposing VAT on the construction sector. Concludes that there will be major discouragement to many development projects. Concludes that the worst‐hit elements are: financial sector tenants, weaker local property markets, large complex projects and commercial but “subject to contract” agreements.
This paper uses a large‐scale survey of SMEs (1,531 respondents) in the UK to assess the factors associated with their competitive conditions and their competitive…
This paper uses a large‐scale survey of SMEs (1,531 respondents) in the UK to assess the factors associated with their competitive conditions and their competitive advantage. Results appear to confirm that, as SME businesses grow, they develop their strategy to seek specialisation and differentiation of their products and services and diversification of their customer base. However, the paper suggests caution about any government policies based on local intervention. It suggests that policy assisted areas have no association with different local competitive conditions or advantage/disadvantage. Instead, the paper suggests that firms increasingly obtain competitive advantage from developing trading relationships with other regions or countries beyond their own locality. Consequently policy assistance should be tailored closely to the needs of the SME rather than the locality.
This paper is aimed at association managers and market advisors. It explores how associations balance their provision of different services, the potential for associations…
This paper is aimed at association managers and market advisors. It explores how associations balance their provision of different services, the potential for associations to provide new services, and the relevance of service “bundling”. A new survey of small firm use of associations in Britain shows that there are few differences between businesses by sector in their use of association services, but membership does significantly increase with firm size, and there is a pattern of “joiners” who belong to many associations, and “non‐joiners”. There is considerable evidence of the benefits of bundling a range of low‐cost, low‐intensity services. But actual use levels of services are low. Even joiners of many associations seem to use association membership chiefly as an insurance principle: to gain ready access to a range of services “just in case”. Analysis of the potential for new services suggests a few potential new specific niches that are related chiefly to strengthening existing service bundles emphasising the insurance principle.
Addresses the question of how TECs′ outputs can be accurately estimated and analysed so that a balanced evaluation of the effectiveness and cost‐efficiency of their programmes can be made. Proposes an approach involving comparisons between “model TECs”, “unreformed TECs” and private‐sector providers of similar programmes and services, which overcomes the dearth of official data on TEC management costs. Contends that TECs at their best are in need of further reform in the direction of private‐sector disciplines, and that the majority of TECs are under‐performing, overstaffed and overpriced compared with other providers of training, enterprise and consultancy services. Concludes by explaining how a potential annual saving of £255 million could be made by reforming the TEC system nationally.
Leadership is a complex concept that is discussed often in many books, blogs and articles, which try to identify those necessary traits to make one a leader. But leadership is ambiguous in that the characteristics that makes one a leader in one situation may not work and may even be detrimental in a similar one. Defining it is difficult, knowing it when you see it is easy. The purpose of this paper is to intend to make you aware of its complexity and your ability to become a leader yourself.
By briefly comparing two successful but dissimilar leaders, the scope and breadth of leadership is introduced. Rather than attempting to define leadership, the paper proceeds to talk about what leadership is not, and why. It ends with an affirmation of our ability to become a leader and a “nudge” to develop those leadership skills we already possess.
The paper suggests leadership is autological, something which defines itself, and that it is seen as different by every individual. It also proposes that we all have leadership traits within us and that whether we are consciously aware of it or not, we act as leaders every day.
The thoughts this paper evokes can help those who are in leadership positions, those striving to become better leaders, and those who are not aware of their leadership potential by broadening their perspectives of leadership and our ability to attain it.
This paper presents leadership in a unique manner, identifying its complexities while providing assurances it can be attained.
The purpose of this paper is to argue that public relations (PR) history‐writing has profoundly shaped the discipline and that its US bias may have limited theoretical developments. The author aims to explore the challenges in writing PR history and to consider some of the strategic philosophical issues and challenges that face historians.
Historical interpretations are shaped by authors' social constructions and thus the paper is written reflexively. The author discusses the way in which histories are structured and patterned by their authors' assumptions and values about the nature of time; human civilisation, progressivism, situationalism, inevitability, human agency, cultural change, flux and transformation.
Existing (largely US) PR historical writing is analysed in terms of its theoretical impact through the “four models” and it is argued that this typology is not appropriately applied to other cultures with different paths of historical evolution. As a way of demonstrating this point, key aspects of British developments in the twentieth century are drawn out to reveal a dozen “models” of PR practice that could potentially form the basis of theoretical research.
Overall, the paper contributes a discussion of historical methodology in relation to PR; shows the connection between history and theory‐building in PR; and demonstrates that history from other cultures can reveal alternative models for theoretical development.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.