Search results

1 – 10 of 99
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Robert Huggins, Brian Morgan and Nick Williams

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at the regional level to promote economic development and competitiveness. The focus of the chapter is the evolution occurring from 1997, when the Labour government came to power, through to the period leading to the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government, which came to power in 2010.

Methodology/approach

A review and critique of key academic and policy-based literature.

Findings

The chapter shows the way in which governance systems and policies aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship have permeated regional development policy at a number of levels in the United Kingdom. In general, the overarching themes of enterprise policy are similar across the regions, but the difference in governance arrangements demonstrates how emphasis and delivery varies.

Practical implications

Place-based enterprise policy needs long-term commitment, with interventions required to survive changes in approaches to governance if they are to prove effective; something which has been far from the case in recent years. Whilst the analysis is drawn from the case of the United Kingdom, the lessons with regard to the connection between regional modes of governance and effective policy implementation are ones that resonate across other nations that are similarly seeking to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial regions.

Social implications

Evidence of ongoing disparities in regional economic development and competitiveness, linked to differences in regional business culture, suggest the continuance of market failure, whereby leading regions continue to attract resources and stimulate entrepreneurial opportunities at the expense of less competitive regions.

Originality/value of paper

The time period covered by the chapter – 1997 onwards – forms an historic era with regard to changing regional governance and enterprise policy in the United Kingdom, with the emergence – and subsequent demise – of regional development agencies (RDAs) across English regions, as well as the introduction of regional governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which were handed certain powers for economic and enterprise development from the UK central government.

Details

Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-641-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Robert Huggins, Brian Morgan and Nick Williams

Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognised as a crucial element in fostering economic development and growth, especially at the regional level. The purpose of this paper…

2280

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognised as a crucial element in fostering economic development and growth, especially at the regional level. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of regional enterprise policies and associated governance mechanisms in the UK to address the following questions: How are evolving systems of regional governance in the UK impacting on the capability of regional policy to foster entrepreneurship? To what extent does enterprise policy form a key part of the overall economic development strategy of regions? and are different forms of regional enterprise policy and priorities emerging?

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on a series of key interviews with policy makers across the regions of Wales, Scotland and England (using the case study of the Yorkshire and the Humber region). The approach adopted in this study facilitates an exploration of the perspectives of those responsible for the formulation and delivery of such support. The paper seeks to ascertain and analyse policy maker opinion on the nature of previous policy, as well as future requirements if policies are to become more effective. It focuses on the period from 1997, with the election of the Labour Government, and the period from 2010 to 2015 represented by the Conservative-Liberal Democratic Coalition Government.

Findings

The paper finds that regional entrepreneurship differentials emerge due to the spatial and place-based nature of three underlying factors: first, the nature of markets; second, the nature of innovation systems; and third, the nature of place-based cultures, communities and the institutions they establish. In the regions studied, failings and limitations in these factors suggest two potential requirements: first, the introduction of public policy in the form of a range of interventions and support mechanisms, second, the introduction of a system of policy governance to establish appropriate interventions and support mechanisms. In the case study regions, clear attempts have been made to address each of the three limiting factors through a range of policy and governance systems, but due to a complex range of issues these have often achieved limited success.

Originality/value

From an intellectual perspective, the paper positively points toward the establishment of governance and policy frameworks that have been both led and informed by the theory underpinning an explanation of regional differentials in entrepreneurial capacity and capability. However, from a more applied perspective it questions the effectiveness and strategic implementation of the policy frameworks and the sustainability of the associated governance mechanisms.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Robert Huggins and Hiro Izushi

The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the origins and journey of the fundamental ideas underpinning Michael Porter’s The Competitive Advantage of

4134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the origins and journey of the fundamental ideas underpinning Michael Porter’s The Competitive Advantage of Nations as a means of assessing its influence.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a reflection of the book’s text and associated works by Porter, the paper shows how Porter’s thinking evolved from his earlier writings, as well as how his ideas went through further periods of development following the publication of The Competitive Advantage of Nations.

Findings

The paper focuses on the emergence of Porter’s cluster theory and his growing acknowledgement of the role of innovation within processes of economic development. It shows how these concepts have provided a foundation for contemporary economic development practices. Also, the paper highlights how the fundamental concepts of Porter’s text have shifted from a unit of analysis focused on nations to one where subnational regions are the primary analytical unit.

Originality/value

The paper concludes by suggesting that the nature of Porter’s conceptual insights is likely to ensure the long-term endurance of the fundamental lessons contained within The Competitive Advantage of Nations.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Nick Williams and Robert Huggins

Government intervention has increasingly identified deprived communities as a key focus for enterprise support. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudes and…

965

Abstract

Purpose

Government intervention has increasingly identified deprived communities as a key focus for enterprise support. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudes and perceptions to enterprise support in a deprived community in the UK city of Leeds.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 142 entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs, and 18 follow‐up in‐depth interviews with entrepreneurs, were conducted with people living in the study area. The survey examined the entrepreneurial activity of members of the community, and usage of enterprise support.

Findings

The paper finds that certain forms of enterprise support in deprived communities may actually discourage entrepreneurship. Also, where entrepreneurial ventures are supported they tend to operate in activities relating to generic trades with low entry barriers, with many enterprises having little actual or perceived requirement for external support, with it being likely that these would have been established with or without support.

Research limitations/implications

A potential limitation of the study is that it is restricted to a case study of deprived communities in one particular city.

Practical implications

Increased investment in the supply of enterprise support may not lead to increased levels of entrepreneurship, with support that aims to engage with people who have never considered starting a business, or do not have the skills required to launch and grow a venture, is unlikely to be cost‐effective given their low growth potential.

Originality/value

The results of the research are potentially applicable to other deprived communities, and provide lessons for policy relating to the promotion of entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Robert Huggins

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework to distinguish different forms of network resource that govern knowledge‐based alliances and facilitate innovation.

1768

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework to distinguish different forms of network resource that govern knowledge‐based alliances and facilitate innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper seeks to build theory through a critical analysis of the relevant literature.

Findings

The paper draws on the notion of network resources to better understand those assets firms have at their disposal to facilitate knowledge‐based interactions and relationships that catalyze innovation. It seeks to integrate the concept of social capital, which the paper argues largely concerns resources related to the social relations and networks held by those individuals within a particular firm. As a means of describing and identifying network resources that are more strategically held by the firm as a whole, the paper introduces the concept of network capital. Network capital is defined as consisting of investments in calculative relations by firms through which they gain access to knowledge to enhance expected economic returns. Therefore, the paper argues that it is possible to make a distinction between the two types of network resource: network capital and social capital.

Research limitations/implications

Making a distinction between network capital and social capital is relevant to both scholars and decision‐makers as it provides a framework for analyzing the underlying complexity of inter‐firm networks and variability across a range of dimensions, conditions and contingencies. It also provides a framework for evaluating which networks a firm can or cannot manage and invest in to meet its requirements.

Originality/value

The paper develops a new and more refined framework for analyzing and evaluating knowledge‐based alliances and innovation‐driven networks between firms and other actors.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Robert Huggins and Maria Weir

This paper aims to focus on how small knowledge‐intensive business service (KIBS) firms manage their knowledge‐based processes, or what are termed “intellectual assets”.

1831

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on how small knowledge‐intensive business service (KIBS) firms manage their knowledge‐based processes, or what are termed “intellectual assets”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on data collected from a sample of small KIBS firms located in Scotland. The methodological approach is novel in that it utilises the results of an online benchmarking tool allowing firms to gauge their intellectual asset base in comparison with other firms.

Findings

The paper finds that approaches to the strategic management of intellectual assets vary significantly according the size and type of KIBS firm. Differences in these approaches impact on the development of effective innovation processes, with resource deficiencies in smaller firms constraining their innovation capability.

Practical implications

It is concluded that small KIBS firms face particular challenges in managing the innovation process and establishing sustainable knowledge management practices, and may benefit from targeted policy intervention.

Originality/value

Unlike many other studies of KIBS firms, this paper focuses on how small KIBS firms manage their own knowledge processes as part of their strategic management approach for creating competitive advantage.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Robert Huggins and Hiro Izushi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which the knowledge competitiveness of regions is measured and further introduces the World Knowledge Competitiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which the knowledge competitiveness of regions is measured and further introduces the World Knowledge Competitiveness Index (WKCI) benchmarking tool.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consists of an econometric analysis of key indicators relating to the concept of knowledge competitiveness for 125 regions from across the globe consisting of 55 representatives from North America, 45 from Europe and 25 from Asia and Oceania.

Findings

The key to winning the super competitive race in the knowledge‐based economy is investment in the future: research and development, and education and training. It is found that the majority of the high‐performing regional economies in the USA have a knowledge competitive edge over their counterparts in Europe and Asia.

Research limitations/implications

To an extent, the research is limited by the availability of comparable indicators and metrics at the regional level that extend across the globe. Whilst comparative data are often accessible at the national level, regional data sources remain underdeveloped.

Practical implications

The WKCI has become internationally recognized as an important instrument for economic development policymakers and regional investment promotion agents as they create and refine their strategies and targets. In particular, it has provided a benchmark that allows regions to compare their knowledge competitiveness with other regions for around the world and not only their own nation or continent.

Originality/value

The WKCI is the first composite and relative measure of the knowledge competitiveness of the globe's best performing regions.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Robert Huggins and Maria Weir

The key purpose of this article is to provide an understanding of the rationale for, and an assessment of, public policy intervention to alleviate a perceived market…

2176

Abstract

Purpose

The key purpose of this article is to provide an understanding of the rationale for, and an assessment of, public policy intervention to alleviate a perceived market failure in the area of intellectual asset management by firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising secondary data, the article initially constructs an Intellectual Asset Index for UK regions. This is followed by an assessment of public policy intervention, mainly reliant on data captured through semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

Whilst public policy appears to be relatively successful in facilitating firms to develop a greater knowledge and understanding of the role of intangibles in maintaining and improving organisational competitiveness, it faces far greater challenges in attempting to convert increased awareness and understanding into the proactive management and exploitation of these intangibles by firms.

Research limitations/implications

The research was undertaken relatively soon after the policy intervention it assesses was implemented. Therefore, the full impact of such public policy was unlikely to be realised at this stage.

Practical implications

The article provides a range of findings and implications that can be utilised by policymakers considering or already intervening in the provision of support to help firms better manage their intellectual assets.

Originality/value

Both the construction of the regional Intellectual Asset Index and the assessment of public policy attempt to provide an understanding of the link between the performance of firms and the competitiveness of the locations in which they are based.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

José Luis Hervas‐Oliver and Juan Ignacio Dalmau‐Porta

The paper seeks to provide a consistent theoretical framework to measure national intellectual capital (IC) and also empirical evidence on the core factors which explain…

1084

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to provide a consistent theoretical framework to measure national intellectual capital (IC) and also empirical evidence on the core factors which explain countries' IC stocks.

Design/methodology/approach

A multidisciplinary theoretical framework is provided to underpin research on regional/national IC. Empirical evidence through multivariate methodology is used in order to design a method to extract the national IC drivers which can explain countries' IC stocks in OECD countries in the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005.

Findings

Theoretical bases of IC are presented to contribute to expanding territorial IC fundamentals and a regional/national IC model is developed. Results show that technological capability and the governmental policy oriented to business are both key factors in mapping the position of the nation in the IC ranking and both are mainly responsible for the levels of countries' IC.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was limited to OECD countries.

Practical implications

The paper is a very useful source of information for policymakers. The paper also opens a necessary debate on the critical areas that need to be reinforced in order to develop regional and national knowledge and national IC platforms. The IC index offered thus explains the key areas in need of improvement in order to upgrade the national IC.

Originality/value

To date, no study has identified the critical IC areas, but rankings have been drawn up with no conclusions at all. This exploratory study adds new empirical evidence to fill this gap in the research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

Tom Schultheiss and Linda Mark

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to…

111

Abstract

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to supplement the RSR review column, “Recent Reference Books,” by Frances Neel Cheney. “Reference Books in Print” includes all additional books received prior to the inclusion deadline established for this issue. Appearance in this column does not preclude a later review in RSR. Publishers are urged to send a copy of all new reference books directly to RSR as soon as published, for immediate listing in “Reference Books in Print.” Reference books with imprints older than two years will not be included (with the exception of current reprints or older books newly acquired for distribution by another publisher). The column shall also occasionally include library science or other library related publications of other than a reference character.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

1 – 10 of 99