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Business contracts are formed through negotiations, where the parties agree on some terms, disagree on others and keep yet others undecided. Over a period of time, they…
Business contracts are formed through negotiations, where the parties agree on some terms, disagree on others and keep yet others undecided. Over a period of time, they see themselves as having moved from being negotiating parties to contracting parties, settling on most of the terms. The law, however, states that a contract is formed when a person makes an offer and the other accepts it. The principle arose from the rudimentary trade practices in the past. The principles coming from the prior centuries and the modern business practices may not be in consonance. The Gibson v. Manchester City Council Case, a judgement of the House of Lords of the United Kingdom, reviewed attempts to modernize the law.
The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent things in their way. But while it is important that better and more scientific attention should be generally given to the preparation of food for the table, it must be admitted to be at least equally important to insure that the food before it comes into the hands of the expert cook shall be free from adulteration, and as far as possible from impurity,—that it should be, in fact, of the quality expected. Protection up to a certain point and in certain directions is afforded to the consumer by penal enactments, and hitherto the general public have been disposed to believe that those enactments are in their nature and in their application such as to guarantee a fairly general supply of articles of tolerable quality. The adulteration laws, however, while absolutely necessary for the purpose of holding many forms of fraud in check, and particularly for keeping them within certain bounds, cannot afford any guarantees of superior, or even of good, quality. Except in rare instances, even those who control the supply of articles of food to large public and private establishments fail to take steps to assure themselves that the nature and quality of the goods supplied to them are what they are represented to be. The sophisticator and adulterator are always with us. The temptations to undersell and to misrepresent seem to be so strong that firms and individuals from whom far better things might reasonably be expected fall away from the right path with deplorable facility, and seek to save themselves, should they by chance be brought to book, by forms of quibbling and wriggling which are in themselves sufficient to show the moral rottenness which can be brought about by an insatiable lust for gain. There is, unfortunately, cheating to be met with at every turn, and it behoves at least those who control the purchase and the cooking of food on the large scale to do what they can to insure the supply to them of articles which have not been tampered with, and which are in all respects of proper quality, both by insisting on being furnished with sufficiently authoritative guarantees by the vendors, and by themselves causing the application of reasonably frequent scientific checks upon the quality of the goods.
Judging the increasing number of strategic statements appearing in company advertisements, stockholder meetings and annual reports, corporate executives now believe there…
Judging the increasing number of strategic statements appearing in company advertisements, stockholder meetings and annual reports, corporate executives now believe there is a clear connection between strategic management and company profitability. The extent to which corporations reported on strategic management in their 1980 annual reports, reflects the growing belief that it is to a company's advantage to formulate and publicize its corporate strategy. In addition, by examining these reports, one may draw a correlation between a company's size and rank and its reported strategy.
Successful job placement of logistics graduates is highly beneficial to organizations offering logistics positions as well as to university logistics programs. A critical…
Successful job placement of logistics graduates is highly beneficial to organizations offering logistics positions as well as to university logistics programs. A critical aspect of successful job placement involves understanding the preferences and perceptions of both students and employers regarding logistics positions. In this paper, we report the results of surveys of U.S. undergraduate logistics student and employer preferences and perceptions regarding logistics positions. The research results provide employers and logistics educators with information that can be used to improve job placement success.
Utilising Item Response Theory (IRT) methodologies, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) was examined for differential item functioning (DIF) on the…
Utilising Item Response Theory (IRT) methodologies, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) was examined for differential item functioning (DIF) on the basis of crossed gender and ethnicity variables. Both the Mantel‐Haenszel procedure and an IRT area‐based technique were utilised to assess the degree of uniform and non‐uniform DIF in a sample of ASVAB takers. Findings were mixed. At the item level, DIF fluctuated greatly. Numerous instances of DIF favouring the reference as well as the focal group were found. At the scale level, inconsistencies existed across the forms and versions. Tests varied in their tendency to be potentially biased against the focal group of interest and at times, performed contrary to expectations. Implications for the ASVAB as well as other g‐loaded selection instruments are considered.
ABERDEEN, the “Granite City,” the “Silver City by the Sea,” the great headquarters of the grey granite trade, and one of the busiest and most influential mercantile cities in Scotland, has a name which is known throughout the civilized world, and a fame which has penetrated to nearly every quarter of the habitable globe. The writing of all that might legitimately be written concerning this remarkable, and in many cases unique, community of “ hard‐headed Aberdonians ” (as they are usually styled), would fill many large volumes, and as we have neither the time nor the space for the compilation of such a work of history and description as this would imply, our readers must be content with an unpretentious historical survey of what is of more immediate interest to them, viz. : the chief libraries belonging to the city of Aberdeen. These are two in number—the Library of the University and the Public Library.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the accuracy of the US Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network (O*NET), which, replacing the Dictionary of…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the accuracy of the US Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network (O*NET), which, replacing the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, analyzes jobs via a hierarchical taxonomy of work in which all task‐level activities are summarized into a 42‐construct taxonomy of first‐order generalized work activities (GWAs).
This study examined the degree of convergence between ratings made using the holistic‐judgment process in the O*NET (which directly rates GWAs using single‐item scales) vs traditional decomposed‐judgment methods which statistically combine ratings of multiple activity items for each GWA.
Analysis of holistic O*NET general work activity ratings with decomposed common‐metric questionnaire (CMQ) ratings revealed poor convergence between holistic vs decomposed methods, low interrater agreement and a tendency for incumbents to rate higher than job analysts.
It is believed that these results raise significant questions regarding the O*NET's plan to rely on unverified holistic ratings obtained from relatively small, volunteer samples of job incumbents to maintain its database over time. There is a clear risk of producing a database of uncertain quality and comparability with the existing analyst ratings. It is concluded that the criteria of quality, accuracy and verifiability should be paramount in efforts to develop a national database of occupational information.
This study is the only empirical analysis of the degree of convergence between ratings made using the holistic‐judgment O*NET and a traditional decomposed‐judgment job analysis. Because job analysis forms the foundation for many human resources functions, effectively setting the standards that drive recruiting efforts, establishing the criteria that are used in hiring, promoting, evaluating, and equitably compensating employees, and forming the basis for many employee training programs, it is absolutely essential that any data source utilized for these purposes should be both accurate and verifiable. This study not only furthers efforts to tests the validity of the O*NET, it also provides empirical evidence of its potential shortcomings.
At a recent inquest upon the body of a woman who was alleged to have died as the result of taking certain drugs for an improper purpose, one of the witnesses described himself as “an analyst and manufacturing chemist,” but when asked by the coroner what qualifications he had, he replied : “I have no qualifications whatever. What I know I learned from my father, who was a well‐known ‘F.C.S.’” Comment on the “F.C.S.” is needless.