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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2018

Fabrizio Rossi, Robert Boylan and Richard J. Cebula

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between financial decisions and ownership structure by using the control contests on a sample of Italian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between financial decisions and ownership structure by using the control contests on a sample of Italian listed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis adopts a balanced panel data set of 984 firm-year observations for the period of 2002-2013, with estimation using a generalized method of moments.

Findings

The results appear to confirm both the hypotheses of the alignment of interests and the entrenchment effect. The entrenchment and alignment effects are not found to be alternatives but rather are found to co-exist. The presence of a coalition of minority shareholders acts as a tool to control agency costs, particularly when the coalition is instrumental in the contestability of corporate control.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that minority shareholders may have a larger impact than previously identified by strategically aligning with other shareholders to form coalitions. This study provides several practical implications. First, dividend payout is not necessarily a good instrument to control and monitor agency costs. This is because the payout can be used to expropriate benefits from the minority shareholders. Second, high ownership concentration does not always reduce agency costs. Third, a non-collusive coalition can be more useful in the monitoring of agency costs than other tools, such as the debt level.

Originality/value

This study shows that there is considerable value to the firm when individual blockholders come together in a contestable environment and become instrumental in making business decisions. The results support the contention that contestability is an excellent deterrent to dampen the expropriation of benefits to minority shareholders. This study also provides evidence that cash holding can be a good substitute for dividends and debt in the effort to limit agency costs.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Richard Cebula, James E. Payne, Donnie Horner and Robert Boylan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of labor market freedom on state-level cost of living differentials in the USA using cross-sectional data for 2016 after allowing for the impacts of economic and quality of life factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses two-stage least squares estimation controlling for factors contributing to cost of living differences across states.

Findings

The results reveal that an increase in labor market freedom reduces the overall cost of living.

Research limitations/implications

The study can be extended using panel data and alternative measures of labor market freedom.

Practical implications

In general, the finding that less intrusive government and greater labor freedom are associated with a reduced cost of living should not be surprising. This is because less government intrusion and greater labor freedom both inherently allow markets to be more efficient in the rationalization of and interplay with forces of supply and demand.

Social implications

The findings of this and future related studies could prove very useful to policy makers and entrepreneurs, as well as small business owners and public corporations of all sizes – particularly those considering either location in, relocation to, or expansion into other markets within the USA. Furthermore, the potential benefits of the National Right-to-Work Law currently under consideration in Congress could add cost of living reductions to the debate.

Originality/value

The authors extend the literature on cost of living differentials by investigating whether higher amounts of state-level labor market freedom act to reduce the states’ cost of living using the most recent annual data available (2016). That labor freedom has a systemic efficiency impact on the state-level cost of living is a significant finding. In our opinion, it is likely that labor market freedom is increasing the efficiency of labor market transactions in the production and distribution of goods and services, and acts to reduce the cost of living in states. In addition, unlike previous related studies, the authors investigate the impact of not only overall labor market freedom on the state-level cost of living, but also how the three sub-indices of labor market freedom, as identified and measured by Stansel et al. (2014, 2015), impact the cost of living state by state.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Maggie Foley, Richard Cebula, Chulhee Jun and Robert Boylan

– This study aims to analyze withdrawn shareholder proposals to gain insight into the role of shareholder proposals in the governance of public corporations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze withdrawn shareholder proposals to gain insight into the role of shareholder proposals in the governance of public corporations.

Design/methodology/approach

A cursory look at the data suggests that unions are the most likely group to withdraw proposals. The authors focus on the behavior of unions and find that unions often resubmit a shareholder proposal which had garnered significant support in the previous year, only to withdraw the proposal in the second year.

Findings

The contention is that the proposals were withdrawn in Year 2 because the issue was settled in a manner agreeable to the union. Furthermore, this research suggests that unions are more likely to withdraw proposals when the prior years’ appeal is higher, when firms have a record of poor performance, lower insider ownership or relatively independent boards. This phenomenon suggests that unions submit and withdraw shareholder proposals strategically. The authors contend that unions use shareholder proposals and the withdrawal of proposals to improve conditions for union workers at the expense of shareholder value.

Practical implications

This study suggests that unions submit and withdraw shareholder proposals strategically. The authors contend that unions use shareholder proposals and the withdrawal of proposals to improve conditions for union workers at the expense of shareholder value.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2017

Matthew Lindsey and Robert Pavur

Control charts are designed to be effective in detecting a shift in the distribution of a process. Typically, these charts assume that the data for these processes follow…

Abstract

Control charts are designed to be effective in detecting a shift in the distribution of a process. Typically, these charts assume that the data for these processes follow an approximately normal distribution or some known distribution. However, if a data-generating process has a large proportion of zeros, that is, the data is intermittent, then traditional control charts may not adequately monitor these processes. The purpose of this study is to examine proposed control chart methods designed for monitoring a process with intermittent data to determine if they have a sufficiently small percentage of false out-of-control signals. Forecasting techniques for slow-moving/intermittent product demand have been extensively explored as intermittent data is common to operational management applications (Syntetos & Boylan, 2001, 2005, 2011; Willemain, Smart, & Schwarz, 2004). Extensions and modifications of traditional forecasting models have been proposed to model intermittent or slow-moving demand, including the associated trends, correlated demand, seasonality and other characteristics (Altay, Litteral, & Rudisill, 2012). Croston’s (1972) method and its adaptations have been among the principal procedures used in these applications. This paper proposes adapting Croston’s methodology to design control charts, similar to Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts, to be effective in monitoring processes with intermittent data. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of these proposed control charts by evaluating their Average Run Lengths (ARLs), or equivalently, their percent of false positive signals.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-069-3

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Matthew Lindsey and Robert Pavur

Research in the area of forecasting and stock inventory control for intermittent demand is designed to provide robust models for the underlying demand which appears at…

Abstract

Research in the area of forecasting and stock inventory control for intermittent demand is designed to provide robust models for the underlying demand which appears at random, with some time periods having no demand at all. Croston’s method is a popular technique for these models and it uses two single exponential smoothing (SES) models which involve smoothing constants. A key issue is the choice of the values due to the sensitivity of the forecasts to changes in demand. Suggested selections of the smoothing constants include values between 0.1 and 0.3. Since an ARIMA model has been illustrated to be equivalent to SES, an optimal smoothing constant can be selected from the ARIMA model for SES. This chapter will conduct simulations to investigate whether using an optimal smoothing constant versus the suggested smoothing constant is important. Since SES is designed to be an adapted method, data are simulated which vary between slow and fast demand.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-534-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2008

Matthew Lindsey and Robert Pavur

When forecasting intermittent demand the method derived by Croston (1972) is often cited. Previous research favorably compared Croston's forecasting method for demand with…

Abstract

When forecasting intermittent demand the method derived by Croston (1972) is often cited. Previous research favorably compared Croston's forecasting method for demand with simple exponential smoothing assuming a nonzero demand occurs as a Bernoulli process with a constant probability. In practice, however, the assumption of a constant probability for the occurrence of nonzero demand is often violated. This research investigates Croston's method under violation of the assumption of a constant probability of nonzero demand. In a simulation study, forecasts derived using single exponential smoothing (SES) are compared to forecasts using a modification of Croston's method utilizing double exponential smoothing to forecast the time between nonzero demands assuming a normal distribution for demand size with different standard deviation levels. This methodology may be applicable to forecasting intermittent demand at the beginning or end of a product's life cycle.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-787-2

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2014

Matthew Lindsey and Robert Pavur

A Bayesian approach to demand forecasting to optimize spare parts inventory that requires periodic replenishment is examined relative to a non-Bayesian approach when the…

Abstract

A Bayesian approach to demand forecasting to optimize spare parts inventory that requires periodic replenishment is examined relative to a non-Bayesian approach when the demand rate is unknown. That is, optimal inventory levels are decided using these two approaches at consecutive time intervals. Simulations were conducted to compare the total inventory cost using a Bayesian approach and a non-Bayesian approach to a theoretical minimum cost over a variety of demand rate conditions including the challenging slow moving or intermittent type of spare parts. Although Bayesian approaches are often recommended, this study’s results reveal that under conditions of large variability across the demand rates of spare parts, the inventory cost using the Bayes model was not superior to that using the non-Bayesian approach. For spare parts with homogeneous demand rates, the inventory cost using the Bayes model for forecasting was generally lower than that of the non-Bayesian model. Practitioners may still opt to use the non-Bayesian model since a prior distribution for the demand does not need to be identified.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-209-8

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Alan O'Day

Butt can be placed within the framework of what George Boyce (1995, pp. 18–19) terms colonial patriotism. Butt's analyses of Ireland's economy and development during the…

Abstract

Butt can be placed within the framework of what George Boyce (1995, pp. 18–19) terms colonial patriotism. Butt's analyses of Ireland's economy and development during the next years brought together the several strands that marked out an Ireland of citizens, an Ireland of sort which has emerged at the turn of the present millennium. What were the influences on Butt and what is his place in the development of political economy? His position is best characterised as eclectic and distinct from the other early holders of the Whately Chair. Drawing upon but not endorsing classical political economy, Adam Smith, Longfield, Jean-Baptiste Say and others, Butt defies pigeonholing. His economic analysis emerged slowly, and initially, there was little hint that he would expand on Longfield's position which essentially was a theory of profit (McGovern, 2000, p. 5). However, Butt moved beyond Longfield's analysis and whereas the latter remained in the classical tradition on free trade, he did not. He expanded Longfield's approach that crucial to the determination of the price of goods was the importance of applying a unit of whatever resource to its marginal use, concluding that the factors of production were remunerated in relation to the utility they created in their least efficient, marginal employment (Boylan & Foley, 2003, Vol. 2, p. 10). His importance, it has been observed, was in drawing attention to the potential resource mobilisation and distribution aspects of protection and in assessing the benefits and weaknesses of protection in relation to the complexity of specific circumstances (Boylan and Foley, 2003, Vol. 3, p. 5). Butt's Whatley lectures have received most attention although it will be suggested that certain of his other writings were as important or even more significant as indicative of his ideas on political economy. In his first Whatley lecture (Butt, 1837a), appropriating the title ‘Introduction’, Butt outlined somewhat verbosely the scope of what he intended to address and adopted the high ground about the purpose of political economy. He declared it was ‘to teach certain truths connected with the social condition of man – it attempts to explain the nature of the causes by which is brought about that singular machinery of society by which Providence has set man to supply each other's wants, and thus receive and confer a mutual benefit’ (1837a, p. 23). Butt addressed the question of production and the creation of ‘utility’. Employing the illustration of cotton stockings, Butt demonstrated the complex interchange required to produce even the most mundane of articles (1837a, pp. 25–26). ‘When you purchase your pair of cotton stockings’, he noted, ‘you are positively commanding for your own personal comfort and accommodation, not only the services of thousands of your cotemporary fellow creatures, but the accumulated results of the labours of generations that have long since passed away’ (1837a, p. 28). Thus, he maintained, political economy ‘teaches the laws which regulate the production, distribution and consumption of wealth’ (1837a, p. 30).

Details

English, Irish and Subversives among the Dismal Scientists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-061-3

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2013

Matthew Lindsey and Robert Pavur

One aspect of forecasting intermittent demand for slow-moving inventory that has not been investigated to any depth in the literature is seasonality. This is due in part…

Abstract

One aspect of forecasting intermittent demand for slow-moving inventory that has not been investigated to any depth in the literature is seasonality. This is due in part to the reliability of computed seasonal indexes when many of the periods have zero demand. This chapter proposes an innovative approach which adapts Croston's (1970) method to data with a multiplicative seasonal component. Adaptations of Croston's (1970) method are popular in the literature. This method is one of the most popular techniques to forecast items with intermittent demand. A simulation is conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed technique extending Croston's (1970) method to incorporate seasonality.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-331-5

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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