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– This article aims to document and analyze how E. Remington & Sons built a valuable firearms brand through its advertising in the period 1854-1888.
This article aims to document and analyze how E. Remington & Sons built a valuable firearms brand through its advertising in the period 1854-1888.
The study uses qualitative methods. Primary source documents include newspapers, journals, and catalogs. The advertising analyzed came primarily from three periodicals – Harper's Weekly, The Army Navy Journal, and American Agriculturalist – that together reached a broad audience of American firearms consumers.
Advertising to both civilian and military markets, Remington used a number of appeals including expert testimonials, fears of robbery and home invasion, and boasts of quality, military contracts, and honors from shooting competitions. Until the late 1870s, Remington used manufacturer's advertising more than its competitors.
Business historians have not seriously addressed Remington or other gun advertising and branding during the nineteenth century, while firearms historians have largely relegated these ads and other promotional ephemera to illustrative accessory roles, not as subjects of independent consideration. By investigating the rise of this important firearms brand, the research sheds light on the evolution of the American firearms industry and the prevailing gun culture.
At a meeting of the Nutrition Panel of the Food Group of the Society of Chemical Industry, Dr. Joseph Needham, of the Biochemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, speaking on “ The Biological Nature of the Egg,” pointed out what complex structures were the eggs of birds and other vertebrates. In fact the embryo, which is eventually to develop into the new animal, only occupies a very small space within the total egg. The remainder serves, in one way or another, to keep the organism alive until it is hatched. It is interesting to note that this is not the case in lower animals. The octopus in its egg is not supplied by its mother with enough copper but must obtain more for itself from the surrounding sea. Newts and frogs in their eggs also must to some extent look after themselves. Birds' eggs, however, represent a type of perfectly “closed box” structure which requires many ingenious devices in order to survive. One of these, through which the bird saves itself from being poisoned by its own by‐products, is the fact that the developing embryo does not excrete nitrogen as urea but in the form of uric acid which is more easily deposited as crystals.—Dr. Ethel M. Cruickshank, of the Department of Agriculture, Cambridge, who spoke on the “ Chemical Composition of the Egg,” pointed out that the hen was a physiological machine for turning raw materials into human foodstuffs. The amount of such human food which the hen could produce in a day depended on a number of factors, but to a large extent it was true to say that the bigger the hen the larger the egg. The number of eggs which a hen would lay in a year was a different matter, but an interesting point was the fact that high production had little or no detrimental effect on the quality of the eggs. In considering the composition of the egg one must divide it into three parts. The shell was principally made up of calcium carbonate, although small amounts of magnesium, phosphorus and organic matter were present. The white was composed of four different kinds of protein and could be divided into layers of thick and thin white. The proportion of thick to thin white influenced the culinary value of the egg. Together, the four proteins in the white contained the essential amino acids which made “ first class ” protein. Egg white contained minerals and also supplied valuable amounts of vitamin B. The yolk contained two proteins which were also shown to be of “ first class ” quality. Besides protein the yolk contained 30 to 32 per cent. of fat. Numerous minerals were present, including relatively rich amounts of easily assimilable iron. Vitamins A, D, B1 and B2 were also present. The anti‐rachitic vitamin D was of great significance in the diet. Dr. Cruickshank also discussed the factors in the diet of the hen which might give the yolk an unpleasant taste or a strange colour. Although the amount of fat, and hence the total food value of the egg, could only be influenced to a slight extent by the diet of the hen, the nature and flavour of the egg could be very strikingly altered by feeding mashes containing, for example, hemp seed or linseed oil. As regards vitamins, it was essential that plenty of these should be present in the diet of the hen in order that her egg might be of high nutritive value. As regards minerals, it was very well known that by feeding a hen a diet which was short of calcium a thin shell was obtained. However, the calcium content of the yolk and white were not affected. The amount of iodine in eggs was affected by the amount in the hens' food, although iron and copper appeared to be independent of the amount present in the diet.—Dr. S. K. Kon, of the National Institute for Research in Dairying, Reading, spoke on the nutritive importance of eggs in the diet. He stressed that eggs share with milk the ability to cover nutritive requirements during the period of rapid development. The vitamins, minerals and “ first class ” protein in eggs made them one of the protective foods. In particular, eggs supplemented very well the proteins present in cereals. Dr. Kon showed in detail how eggs contribute to the various factors of a good diet.—Dr. R. B. Haines, of the Low Temperature Research Station, Cambridge, spoke on the preservation of eggs. He showed how hens' eggs were in a state of rapid change. The aim of storage was to retard or stop this change and prevent the attack of outside agencies such as micro‐organisms. Although storage only affected the nutritive value of eggs to a very minor degree, any loss of palatability and cooking quality was a clear indication that certain slight chemical changes had taken place. Dr. Haines mentioned three methods for the large‐scale storage of eggs. The first was cold storage, the second, storage with the partial addition of CO2, and the third, full gas storage. For other purposes, drying or freezing could be used. Problems connected with the storage of eggs led to the consideration of questions of production and handling. For example, “ thick white ” was apparently due to the individual hen. Again, spoilage of eggs by the invasion of bacteria was influenced by the structure of the egg‐shell, which might vary greatly in successive eggs from the same hen or by the “ washing ” treatment which the eggs received. Among many other topics upon which Dr. Haines touched were “ swollen ” and “ flabby ” yolks due to loss of moisture, “ watery whites,” “ sunken ” and “ sided ” yolks due to chemical changes, and eggs with “ whiskers,” due to the growth of fungus on the shell.—Miss Mary Andross, of the West of Scotland College of Domestic Science, Glasgow, gave the final paper on the subject of “ The Cooking of Eggs.” Research in domestic science concerned itself with what effect such factors as temperature, time, rate of cooking, acidity, or the addition of salts, might have on the nutritive properties of eggs which were boiled, poached, fried, scrambled or made into omelets, custards, mayonaise, meringues, angel cakes, or sponge cakes. Another important factor which was the subject of scientific investigation was the effect of the age of the egg in relation to its cooking qualities. Miss Andross also discussed the waste of food value which might take place in different methods of cooking, and she concluded by discussing the effects which different treatments might have on the digestibility of the food.
From earliest times the land and all it produced to feed and sustain those who dwelt on it was mankind's greatest asset. From the Biblical “land of milk and honey”, down through history to the “country of farmers” visualised by the American colonists when they severed the links with the mother country, those who had all their needs met by the land were blessed — they still are! The inevitable change brought about by the fast‐growing populations caused them to turn to industry; Britain introduced the “machine age” to the world; the USA the concept of mass production — and the troubles and problems of man increased to the present chaos of to‐day. There remained areas which depended on an agri‐economy — the granary countries, as the vast open spaces of pre‐War Russia; now the great plains of North America, to supply grain for the bread of the peoples of the dense industrial conurbations, which no longer produced anything like enough to feed themselves.
From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore…
From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore, look for the sources of later dynamism in this period. As Kyung Cho Chung (1956:225) wrote in the mid‐1950s: “[South Korea] faces grave economic difficulties. The limitations imposed by the Japanese have been succeeded by the division of the country, the general destruction incurred by the Korean War, and the attendant dislocation of the population, which has further disorganized the economy” (see also McCune 1956:191–192). T.R. Fehrenbach (1963:37), in his widely read book on the Korean War, prognosticated: “By themselves, the two halves [of Korea] might possibly build a viable economy by the year 2000, certainly not sooner.”
The British countryman is a well‐known figure; his rugged, obstinate nature, unyielding and tough; his part in the development of the nation, its history, not confined to the valley meadows and pastures and uplands, but nobly played in battles and campaigns of long ago. His “better half”—a term as true of yeoman stock as of any other—is less well known. She is as important a part of country life as her spouse; in some fields, her contribution has been even greater. He may grow the food, but she is the provider of meals, dishes, specialties, the innovating genius to whom most if not all British food products, mostly with regional names and now well‐placed in the advertising armentarium of massive food manufacturers, are due. A few of them are centuries old. Nor does she lack the business acumen of her man; hens, ducks, geese, their eggs, cut flowers, the produce of the kitchen garden, she may do a brisk trade in these at the gate or back door. The recent astronomical price of potatoes brought her a handsome bonus. If the basic needs of the French national dietary are due to the genius of the chef de cuisine, much of the British diet is due to that of the countrywoman.
The author argues that we must stop and take a look at what our insistence on human labour as the basis of our society is doing to us, and begin to search for possible alternatives. We need the vision and the courage to aim for the highest level of technology attainable for the widest possible use in both industry and services. We need financial arrangements that will encourage people to invent themselves out of work. Our goal, the article argues, must be the reduction of human labour to the greatest extent possible, to free people for more enjoyable, creative, human activities.
If additional evidence were needed of the connection between food supply and the spread of infectious disease, it would be found in a report recently presented to the Finsbury Borough Council by its Medical Officer of Health, Dr. GEORGE NEWMAN. It appears that in the early part of May a number of cases of scarlet fever were notified to Dr. NEWMAN, and upon inquiry being made it was ascertained that nearly the whole of these cases had partaken of milk from a particular dairy. A most pains‐taking investigation was at once instituted, and the source of the supply was traced to a farm in the Midlands, where two or three persons were found recovering from scarlet fever. The wholesale man in London, to whom the milk was consigned, at first denied that any of this particular supply had been sent to shops in the Finsbury district, but it was eventually discovered that one, or possibly two, churns had been delivered one morning, with the result that a number of persons contracted the disease. One of the most interesting points in Dr. NEWMAN'S report is that three of these cases, occurring in one family, received milk from a person who was not a customer of the wholesale dealer mentioned above. It transpired on the examination of this last retailer's servants that on the particular morning on which the infected churn of milk had been sent into Finsbury, one of them, running short, had borrowed a quart from another milkman, and had immediately delivered it at the house in which these three cases subsequently developed. The quantity he happened to borrow was a portion of the contents of the infected churn.
The more recent history of the National Health Service, especially the Hospital Service, has been in the nature of a lumbering from one crisis to another. From the moment of its inception it has proved far more costly than estimated and over‐administered, but in the early years, it had great promise and was efficient at ward level, which continued until more recent times. As costs increased and administration grew and grew, much of it serving no useful purpose, there appeared to be a need for reorganisation. In 1974, a three‐tier structure was introduced by the establishment of new area health authorities, the primary object of which was to facilitate — and cheapen — decision making; to give the district bodies and personnel easier access to “management”. It coincided with reorganisation of Local Government, which included the transfer of all the personal health services and abolition of the office of medical officer of health. At the time and in looking back, there was very little need for this and reviewing the progress and advances made in local government, medical officers of health who had advocated the transfer, mainly for reasons of their own status, would have achieved this and more by remainining in the local government service; the majority of health visitors appear to have reached the same conclusion. They constitute a profession within themselves and in truth do not have all that much in common with day‐to‐day nursing. The basic training and nursing qualification is most essential, however. It has been said that a person is only as good a health visitor as she is a nurse.