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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2018

Willard Navicha, Yufei Hua, Kingsley George Masamba, Xiangzhen Kong and Caimeng Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the changes in descriptive sensory properties and overall consumer acceptability of soymilk prepared from roasted soybeans.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the changes in descriptive sensory properties and overall consumer acceptability of soymilk prepared from roasted soybeans.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 12 purposively selected post graduate students majoring in Food Science conducted descriptive sensory analysis after being trained for 18 h in sensory analysis, while 75 untrained students conducted consumer acceptability test of soymilk prepared by roasting soybeans at a temperature of 110°C for 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 min and at 120°C for 20 min.

Findings

Results have revealed that roasting soybeans improved sensory properties by significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the objectionable green, beany flavours and increasing sweet taste, viscosity and roasted flavour. Furthermore, results from the principal component analysis revealed that aroma and sweet taste were the most critical sensory attributes. In addition, it was found out that soymilk samples prepared by roasting soybeans at 110°C for 40 and 60 min and at 120°C for 20 min were significantly more acceptable than the control soymilk.

Research limitations/implications

The participants in this study were from one locality and predominantly soybean consuming community and therefore there is need to conduct the study in a different locality in order to validate the study findings.

Practical implications

The study can assist small scale processors that might not have access to lipoxygenase-free soybeans and other technologies for improving the quality of soymilk.

Social implications

The study can be used as a guide for connecting the food processers with the external world of consumption.

Originality/value

For the first time, the study findings have demonstrated that controlled soybean roasting can be a useful strategy for improving soymilk sensory properties and consumer acceptability. The findings in this study can be usefully used in the quality control of soy bean-based products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Deepika Kathuria, Anju K. Dhiman, Surekha Attri and Manish Kumar

Soybean is potentially a rich source of protein and lipids along with isoflavone. However, the use of soybean is limited due to presence of anti-nutritional factors such…

Abstract

Purpose

Soybean is potentially a rich source of protein and lipids along with isoflavone. However, the use of soybean is limited due to presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, etc. The present study aimed at evaluation of Harit soya seeds of different treatments such as soaking, dehulling, germination, soaking+roasting and roasting in order to enhance its quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Harit soya seeds were utilized were soaked overnight and subjected for dehulling, germination for 3 days as well as roasting followed by drying to obtain fine powder for quality evaluation.

Findings

Dehulling and germination produce significant (p < 0.01) increase in protein, crude fiber, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and isoflavones while fat was decreased non-significantly. The highest value of 12.4 mg/100g, 5.3 mgGAE/g and 6.6 mg/g for ascorbic acid, total phenolics and isoflavones was found in germinated seeds. Also, the effect of soaking, roasting and their combination lead to significant decrease in the functional properties of the seeds. Anti-nutritional factors were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced in all forms of treated seeds while pepsin and trysin digestibility was enhanced during soaking, dehulling and germination with maximum value of 72.6 and 25.8%, respectively in germinated seeds.

Originality/value

Improvement in quality of evergreen variety of soybean using cost effective traditional methods

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2018

Federica Pascucci

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitive position of Italian roasting firms in the international market, thus developing a multidimensional framework for…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitive position of Italian roasting firms in the international market, thus developing a multidimensional framework for measuring industry export competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering that the objective is to evaluate the export competitiveness of Italian roasting firms, the author chooses “positive” and “ex-post” indicators, combined in a multidimensional and a multivariable framework. The two dimensions of competitiveness implemented are competitive performance and competitive potential; the author used four indices to evaluate the first dimension (export market share, net export share, net export index, revealed comparative advantage) and three indices for the second dimension (unit export price, relative quality index, relative export growth).

Findings

The evolution of the international context, with the emergence of new competitors and the spread of coffee consumption worldwide, creates new opportunities but also new challenges for Italian companies. In fact, both competitive performance and competitive potential have been worsening since the second half of the early twenty-first century because of the lack of innovation. A mix of external and internal factors explain this lack.

Practical implications

In order to recover their international competitiveness, firms should leverage on the combination of “traditional elements”–such as Made in Italy effect and the rich technical know-how, depending on their long tradition in the espresso coffee market niche–with “innovative elements,” depending on new marketing skills and competences; these new elements could be developed internally or, most fruitfully, acquired externally, through collaboration with other firms. In this way, Italian businesses could improve the relative quality perceptions of their offering.

Social implications

Coffee roasting industry in Italy is a significant component of the Italian economic system and it contributes to the development of the Made in Italy abroad. Therefore, an improvement of its export competitiveness could be beneficial to the whole domestic market.

Originality/value

This paper constitutes the first attempt to study the evolution of the coffee industry in regards to the international competitive landscape. This is quite surprising, considering that coffee is one of the main segments of the food and beverage industry; it is the second most important commodity exchanged worldwide after oil and the third most popular beverage after water, tea and carbonated beverages. Then, the analysis of export competitiveness is developed combing two main research streams: the industrial organization literature and the strategic management literature. Moreover, this paper offers a methodological framework useful to measure export competitiveness also in other industries and countries.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

F.O. Omoruyi, L. Dilworth and H.N. Asemota

This study aims to investigate the levels of some anti‐nutritional factors and minerals and the effect of boiling or roasting on selected commonly consumed Caribbean tuber crops.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the levels of some anti‐nutritional factors and minerals and the effect of boiling or roasting on selected commonly consumed Caribbean tuber crops.

Design/methodology/approach

Three commonly consumed tuber crops in the Caribbean namely: Yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sp.) and Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) were harvested from farmers’ field in the Parish of Manchester, Jamaica and assessed in their boiled, raw and roasted forms for levels of some anti‐nutritional factors and minerals.

Findings

Zinc and iron levels were highest in raw Yellow yam, while the highest levels of calcium were observed in Sweet potato. The phytic acid to zinc molar ratio was higher than 15 in all the tuber crops in their raw and roasted forms. Boiling reduced this ratio to below 15 for Yellow yam and Cocoyam but still remained above 15 for Sweet potato. Cyanoglucoside level was highest in raw Sweet potato followed by Yellow yam and Cocoyam. Boiling or roasting reduced the levels of cyanoglucosides. Roasting greatly lowered the level of trypsin inhibitor activity compared to boiling. The highest level of trypsin inhibitor activity was recorded in the raw tubers, and slight reductions were observed upon processing.

Practical implications

Trypsin inhibitor was more stable to heat treatment compared to similar tubers grown in Africa. It may be beneficial to isolate and characterize trypsin inhibitor in these Caribbean tuber crops for utilization in nutraceutics.

Originality/value

This study shows that the two traditional processing methods were effective in lowering the levels of anti‐nutritional factors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Ezekiel Olufunke Oluseyi and Oyesiku Morenike Temitayo

– This paper aims to focus on the effect of fermentation, roasting and germination on tamarind seed flour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the effect of fermentation, roasting and germination on tamarind seed flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Tamarind seeds were treated using three different methods, namely, fermentation, roasting and germination. Fermentation was allowed for four days, roasting was carried out at 180°C at three time regimens of 10, 15 and 20 min and germination was done at 10, 15 and 20 days. Samples were analysed at intervals for proximate composition, antinutritional factors and functional properties using standard methods.

Findings

Protein, crude fat, crude fibre contents and pH increased significantly (p < 0.05) as fermentation progressed, while ash content and carbohydrate reduced. Protein, crude fat and crude fibre contents decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as roasting progressed, while ash content, carbohydrate and pH increased. Protein and crude fibre contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as germination progressed, while crude fat, ash content, carbohydrate and pH reduced. Processing resulted in significant reduction of the phytate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor.

Practical implications

Processed seeds of Tamarindus indica can be used to fortify local cereals (millet/maize) with other ingredients to produce complementary foods with good nutritional quality and consequently as a tool for meeting community nutritional needs.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated effect of fermentation, roasting and germination in enhancement of functional and nutritional properties of tamarind seed flour for utilization as a food ingredient.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Case study
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Feng Tianjun, Zhang Chunyi and He Jiani

Established in 2010, Mellower Coffee has 40 exquisite chain stores and three branches, namely Mellower Coffee Sales, Mellower Business Management and Shanghai Mellower…

Abstract

Established in 2010, Mellower Coffee has 40 exquisite chain stores and three branches, namely Mellower Coffee Sales, Mellower Business Management and Shanghai Mellower Roasting Factory. Positioned as a premium coffee brand in China, Mellower Coffee has realized the integrated operation and management of the whole industrial chain from raw coffee trade, roasting factory, coffee retail products, specialty coffee chain, office coffee to coffee academy. It has a vision to attract and cultivate more and more coffee lovers by constant innovation coffee culture promotion.

Details

Management School, Fudan University, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2632-7635
Published by: Management School, Fudan University

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

B.I.O. Ade‐Omowaye, A.M. Adegbite, B.R. Adetunji and O.O. Oladunmoye

This paper focuses on the effect of different pretreatments on some properties of tigernut, an underutilized crop in Nigeria with the aim of widening its utilization in…

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371

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focuses on the effect of different pretreatments on some properties of tigernut, an underutilized crop in Nigeria with the aim of widening its utilization in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

Tigernuts were subjected to various pretreatments such as fermentation, germination, pregelatinization and roasting before drying at 50 ± 2 C for 48 h in locally fabricated cabinet drier and milling in commercial plate mill to produce meal which passed through 30 mm pore‐sized sieve. Pretreated and untreated tigernut meals were analyzed using methods reported in the literature for chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties.

Findings

Protein content of the meals ranged from 2.79 ± 0.01 to 3.65 ± 0.02 per cent with sample from fermented tigernut having the highest value and those from roasted ones having the least value. There were slight variations in the crude fat, fiber and ash contents of the resultant meals after pretreatment. There were 10 and 14 per cent enhancement in the ascorbic acid contents of fermented and germinated meals respectively. Titratable acidity, pH and water absorption capacity were affected by pretreatment in this study. Bulk density varied slightly after pretreatment. Germination, roasting and pregelatinization resulted in marked decrease in peak viscosity of the samples. The emulsion capacity ranged from 48.4 to 56 per cent with the untreated sample having the highest value and meals from roasted sample had the least value. Foaming capacity was improved by the pretreatments with the exception of roasting which reduced it from 2.15 to 1.18 per cent.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the effect of pretreatments on tigernut meals and its potential applications in various food formulation and development, e.g. weaning foods, baked goods, beverage products, etc.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2017

Nora Munguia, Alejandra Varela, Javier Esquexr and Luis Eduardo Velázquez Contreras

At the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (COP 21) in Paris, 195 governments reached an agreement pivotal not only for…

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1893

Abstract

Purpose

At the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (COP 21) in Paris, 195 governments reached an agreement pivotal not only for countries but also for companies. The Paris Agreement makes it impossible to practice business as usual. The transition to a low-carbon coffee industry could be achieved by fostering corporate sustainability. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of how to adopt the principles of Paris Agreement by enhancing the corporate sustainability of a Mexican coffee-roaster company using the inventory phase of the life cycle assessment tool.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection process followed the requirements of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System Handbook, developed by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability in the European Commission Joint Research Centre, and data on packaging materials and energy production were drawn from a commercially available database in the LCA software SimaPro.

Findings

Compiling data on the energy of the firm’s material flows in a firm revealed opportunities to improve energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the inventory analysis can be used to evaluate the specific environmental impacts of the coffee-roasting process at this Mexican coffee company. Data compilation activities for energy flows identified the need to install liquefied petroleum gas measuring devices and individual measuring devices for electricity consumption in different areas of the coffee plant. It is recommended that, while implementing this option, the company also develop an energy management program to achieve energy efficiency.

Practical implications

The inventory data in this case study permit comparisons of the current state of the system studied and its possible future states and offer stakeholders relevant information on resource use. Similarly, the project results provide the basis for future research on environmental performance in the coffee industry in Mexico and for the development of policies regarding the production process in the coffee supply chain. Consequently, this research can help fulfil Mexico’s commitment to the Paris Agreement.

Social implications

Reaching the goal of the Paris Agreement will require gathering key information for each single company. The current case study has provided key data to foster the principles of sustainability in the Mexican coffee industry to help this sector to transit toward sustainable development, which is a new demand of the Mexican society. Even though it may seem simple, this is the hardest step for enhancing stakeholder involvement in corporate sustainability.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this research to science and practice is to confirm that fostering corporate sustainability is easier and more feasible when energy flow information is available.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Congcong Liu, Chong Wang, Keping Ye, Yun Bai, Xiaobo Yu, Chunbao Li and Guanghong Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the influences of the animal fat and fatty acid type on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the influences of the animal fat and fatty acid type on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to propose a formation mechanism of PAHs in fat during electric roasting, which is a method of non-direct-contact-flame heating.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of animal fats and model fat on the formation of PAHs were valued on the basis of the ultra high-performance liquid chromatography data. The corresponding products of the FAME pyrolysis were detected by TG-FTIR. The proposal formation mechanism of PAHs was based on the summary of the literature.

Findings

Contrary to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, DF had higher risk with 280.53 ng/g of concentration after being roasted than the others animal fats of red meat in terms of PAHs formation. This research also ensured the importance of fat on PAHs formation, the concentration of PAHs in pure fats was higher after being electric roasted than that in meat patties and juice which made from corresponding animal fat. What is more, during pure animal fats and meat products being processed, less PAHs formed in the fat with lower extent of unsaturation and lower content of linolenate. In the same way, methyl linolenate demonstrated the significant increasement to PAHs formation compared to the other fatty acids. And, the number of carbon atom and the extent of unsaturation in fatty acid affects the formation of PAHs during roasting. The detection of alkene and alkane allows to propose a formation mechanism of PAHs during model fat being heated. Further study is required to elucidate the confirm moleculars during the formation of PAHs.

Originality/value

This work studied the effect of the carbon atom number and the unsaturation extent of fats and model fats on the formation of PAHs. This work also assure the important of alkene and alkane on the pyrolysis of model fats. This study also researched the formation and distribution of PAHs in pure fats and meat products after being heated.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2009

Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi and Taiwo Ruth Esho

This paper seeks to demonstrate that the nutritional composition of bambara groundnut (BG) seeds can be influenced when subjected to three traditional processing methods…

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1604

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to demonstrate that the nutritional composition of bambara groundnut (BG) seeds can be influenced when subjected to three traditional processing methods (i.e. fermentation, roasting, and germination).

Design/methodology/approach

Proximate, minerals, amino acids and antinutritional factors of each of the processed food samples were investigated using AOAC methods. The results of the study were as follows: For the proximate analysis, moisture content ranged between: 1.50‐2.16 g/100 g; fat 6.02‐6.57 g/100 g; protein 20.00‐20.49 g/100 g; ash 1.17‐3.46 g/100 g; carbohydrate 65.82‐68.74 g/100 g and energy 400.2‐412.18kcal. For the minerals composition, calcium ranged between 14.12± 0.01‐18.26±0.01 mg/100 g, potassium 57.61±0.01‐80.62±0.02 mg/100 g, magnesium 50.47± 0.01‐69.34±0.02 mg/100 g, sodium 19.05±0.01‐25.97±0.01 mg/100 g, iron 0.15±0.01‐0.48± 0.01 mg/100 g, selenium 0.00±0.00‐0.21±0.01 mg/100 g and phosphorus 164.73±0.01‐187.13± 0.01 mg/100 g, while the Ca/P and Na/K ratios of the food samples range between 0.10±0.01‐0.19±0.01 and 0.30±0.01‐0.35±0.01 respectively. The total amino acid and percentage of total essential amino acid for children and adults were higher in germinated BG seed flour than fermented and roasted BG flour respectively.

Findings

The findings were that the antinutritional content of fermented bambara groundnut seed flour was low compared with germinated and roasted bambara groundnut seed flour.

Research limitations/implications

The protein content of fermented bambara groundnut flour was higher and also had a low level of antinutritional factors compared with other processed bambara groundnut flour. In view of these, further study may be conducted to establish the suitability of incorporating the fermented bambara groundnut flour into weaning food.

Originality/value

The study showed that these traditional processing methods, that is, fermentation, germination and roasting, influenced the nutritional composition of bambara groundnut seeds.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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